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Table 1 The characteristics of included studies

From: Chewing gum for intestinal function recovery after caesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author(year) Country Numbers of participants(GC/NGC) Gum intervention Main outcomes Results
Abd-El-Maeboud 2009 [19] Egypt 200(93/107) Started from 2 h after surgery, lasted for 15 min every 2 h in the daytime but not in the night, until the passage of flatus ,,, Gum chewing after CS is safe, well tolerated, and associated with rapid resumption of intestinal motility and shorter hospital stay
Ajuzieogu 2014 [20] Nigeria 180(90/90) Started from the first day after operation for 5 consecutive days, 3 times daily, 30 min for every time. ,,, Gum chewing has a beneficial effect on early return of bowel function following cesarean section and should be included in the postoperative management protocol
Jakkaew 2013 [21] Thailand 50(25/25) Started since the regain of consciousness after operation, 4 times a day (morning, noon, evening, and before bed time), 30 min for every time, until the first passage of flatus ,,, Gum chewing is associated with faster recovery of bowel function following cesarean section
Kafali 2010 [22] Turkey 150(74/76) Started from 2 h after surgery, 3 times daily in the morning, afternoon, and evening, each episode of gum chewing lasted 1 h except the initial one which lasted 15 min ,, Gum chewing provides a simple method for early recovery of bowel function after cesarean section
Ledari 2012 [23] Iran 100(50/50) Chewing gum for at least 1 h, three times daily from 6 h after surgery (after recovery from anesthesia) until being discharged ,, chewing is acceptable and inexpensive physiologic method for decreasing the time to the passage of flatus, bowel movements, and feeling of hunger in patients undergoing cesarean section
Lee 2016 [24] China 120(40/40/40) Chewing xylitol-free or xylitol-containing gum started from 2 h after surgery, repeated every 2 h between 9 a.m. and 8 p.m, 15 min for every time, until the first passage of flatus ,, After cesarean section, chewing gum increased participants’ return of bowel activity and xylitol-containing gum may be superior to xylitol-free gum
Liang 2007 [25] China 120(60/60) Started after recovery from anesthesia, repeated every 2 h for 15 min every time ,,, Chewing gum can promote gastrointestinal motility recovery after cesarean section, and the method is simple, convenient, safe
Luo 2010 [26] China 300(150/150) Started from 2 h after surgery, 4 times daily in the morning, afternoon, and evening, each episode of gum chewing lasted 10-15min ,,,, Chewing gum can promote the recovery of gastrointestinal function after cesarean section
Shang 2010 [27] China 386(195/191) Chew gum for at least half an hour, three times per day after returning to the ward ,,,,⑩ Gum chewing is an inexpensive, convenient, and physiological method in enhancing the recovery of bowel function
Zamora 2012 [28] Philippines 53(18/35) Gum chewing involved chewing two pellets of sugarless gum at 12 h post operation for 15 min then advanced to sips of clear liquids at 16 h post operation ,,,⑩ Postoperative gum chewing stimulates the earlier return of bowel motility after cesarean delivery
  1. Notes: , the time to first passage of flatus; , the time to first defecation; , the time to first bowel movement; , the time to first bowel sound; , the length of hospital stay; , time to first feeling of hunger; , abdominal distension; , vomiting; , post operation incision pain; ⑩, postoperative ileus(POI)