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Table 4 Maternal risk factors associated with singleton newborn outcomes (October 1, 2009 and March 15, 2010)

From: Maternal characteristics and obstetrical complications impact neonatal outcomes in Indonesia: a prospective study

Maternal risk factor Bivariate Analysis
Odds Ratios [95% CI]
p-value Reduced Logistic Model
Adjusted Odds Ratios [95% CI]
p-value
Low Birthweight (n = 357)
 Young maternal age (<20 years) 1.83 [1.03, 3.25] 0.04   
 Primagravida 1.78 [1.52, 2.74] 0.01   
 Rural residence 1.81 [0.99, 3.29] 0.05   
 Referred from another facility 0.47 [0.24, 1.90] 0.02  0.28 [0.11, 0.69]  0.01
 Antepartum hemorrhage 2.57 [1.09, 6.08] 0.03   
 Eclampsia 1.68 [0.92, 3.07] 0.09   
 Near miss 2.08 [1.08, 3.98] 0.03   
 Time to reach nearest hospital >1 h 1.88 [0.88, 4.02] 0.10   
 Prenatal care visits (<4 visits) 2.66 [1.06, 6.70] 0.04   
Very Low Birthweight (n = 388)
 Young maternal age (<20 years) 3.72 [1.47, 9.44] <0.01 6.39 [1.82, 22.35] <0.01
 Referral from another facility 0.22 [0.08, 0.58] <0.01 0.18 [0.04, 0.75] 0.02
 Mother presented with complication 0.33 [0.13, 0.87] 0.03   
 Antepartum hemorrhage 4.15 [1.15, 15.04] 0.03   
 Prenatal care visits (<4 visits) 3.27 [0.67, 15.98] 0.14   
Asphyxia (n = 357)
 Primagravida 1.42 [0.93, 2.17] 0.11   
 Insurance for the poor 1.54 [0.99, 2.34] 0.05   
 Rural residence 4.36 [1.98, 9.63] <0.001 5.37 [1.98, 18.16] <0.01
 Near miss after admission 2.14 [0.88, 5.27] 0.10   
 Malpresentation 3.47 [2.00, 6.03] <0.001 4.65 [2.23, 9.70] <0.001
 Low education 2.10 [0.96, 4.58] 0.06   
 Multiple referrals 0.57 [0.30, 1.08] 0.09   
 Prenatal care visits (<4 visits) 1.98 [0.79, 4.90] 0.14   
Stillbirth (n = 699)
 Referral from another facility 0.40 [0.18, 0.86] 0.019 0.41 (0.18, 0.95] 0.37
 Postpartum hemorrhage 3.33 [1.38, 8.01] 0.007   
 PROM 0.23 [0.08, 0.65] 0.006 0.27 [0.09, 0.76] 0.014
 Malpresentation 3.78 [1.96, 7.29] <0.001 4.27 [2.11, 8.62] <0.001
 Dystocia 0.38 [0.16, 0.91] 0.029   
 Caesarean Section 0.30 [0.14, 0.62] 0.001 0.28 [0.13, 0.60] 0.001
 Near miss on admission 3.77 [1.35, 10.59] 0.012   
 Near miss at any time 2.48 [1.14, 5.39] 0.021 3.54 [1.53, 8.21] 0.003
Neonatal deaths (n = 375)
 Young maternal age (<20 years) 2.90 [1.30, 6.48] <0.01 4.10 [1.29, 13.02] 0.02
 Advanced maternal age 0.26 [0.06, 1.12] 0.07   
 Primagravida 2.06 [1.00, 4.24] 0.05   
 Referral from another facility 0.31 [0.13, 0.75] 0.01 0.20 [0.05, 0.81] 0.02
 Antepartum hemorrhage 2.5 [0.71, 8.76] 0.15   
 Postpartum hemorrhage 2.9 [0.96, 8.85] 0.06 4.11 [1.03, 16.39] 0.05
 Near miss on admission 2.58 [1.07, 6.22] 0.03 11.67 [2.08, 65.65] <0.01
 Caesarean Section 0.53 [0.25, 1.13] 0.10   
 Near miss at any time 5.42 [2.44, 12.04] <0.001 7.5 [2.24, 25.08] <0.01
 Belonging to the two poorest income quintiles 0.36 [0.10, 1.30] 0.12   
 Time to reach nearest hospital >1 h 0.76 [0.17, 1.31] 0.15   
Perinatal deaths (n = 348)
 Young maternal age 9 < 20 years) 1.99 [1.09, 3.61] 0.02   
 Referral from another facility 0.33 [0.18, 0.61] <0.001   
 Time of delivery (at night) 0.68 [0.41, 1.11] 0.12   
 Antepartum hemorrhage 2.19 [0.92, 5.15] 0.08   
 Postpartum hemorrhage 2.70 [1.32, 5.52] <0.01 3.96 [1.41, 11.15] <0.01
 Malpresentation 2.59 [1.47, 4.57] <0.01 3.89 [1.42, 10.64] <0.01
 Near miss on admission 5.27 [2.42, 11.47] <0.001 13.08 [3.77, 45.37] <0.001
 Near miss at any time 3.24 [1.81, 5.77] <0.001 6.00 [2.32, 15.50] <0.001
 Mother presented with complication 0.41 [0.23, 0.71] <0.01 0.30 [0.11, 0.81] 0.02
 Caesarean Section 0.37 [0.22, 0.64] <0.001   
 Prenatal care visits (<4 visits) 5.17 [2.34, 11.39] <0.001 6.70 [2.71, 16.62] <0.001
  1. Data in italics have precise significance