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Table 1 Descriptive Analysis of the characteristics of pregnant women with low birth weight infants compared to those with normal birth weight infants

From: Impact of maternal respiratory infections on low birth weight - a community based longitudinal study in an urban setting in Pakistan

Pregnant women characteristics Sample size (n) Birth weight
<2.5 kg (n = 51) > = 2.5 kg (n = 192)
Age of pregnant women Mean(SD); years 243 23.0 (3.8) 24.4 (4.5)
Pregnant women’s education; n (%)
No formal schooling 237 35 (68.6) 126 (65.6)
Below 10th grade   8 (15.7) 38 (19.8)
10th grade and above   6 (11.8) 24 (12.5)
Weight at first visit of pregnant women mean(SD); kg 243 49.0 (9.0) 53.6 (11.7)
Height of pregnant women mean(SD); cm 243 153.1 (4.5) 152.6 (11.5)
Gravidity, Median (IQR) 240 3 (2) 3 (3)
Household characteristics
No of people living in household, Mean(SD) 243 8.9 (5.5) 8.7 (5.5)
No of rooms in the household Mean(SD) 242 2.5 (1.5) 2.4 (1.4)
Total score of household assets, Mean(SD) 243 154.3 (141.9) 201.1 (179.0)
Main source of drinking water; n (%) 242   
Piped into the house   16 (31.4) 71 (36.9)
Bought from tankers   16 (31.4) 63 (32.8)
Bought from drums   19 (37.2) 57 (29.7)
Use of flush toilet facility; n (%) 237 0 (0) 2 (1.0)
Use of boiled water; n (%) 243 10 (19.6) 40 (20.8)
Antenatal characteristics
Age at first pregnancy (years) Mean(SD) 243 18.8 (2.2) 18.9 (3.6)
Child gestational age in weeks Mean(SD) 241 36.6 (1.2) 36.7 (3.9)
Number of antenatal visits during current pregnancy; n (%) 238   
0   36 (70.6) 140 (72.9)
1   5 (9.8) 9 (4.7)
2   4 (7.8) 23 (11.9)
3 and above   5 (9.8) 16 (8.3)
Clinical characteristics   Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Fever~ 243 7.2 (7.4) 6.8 (7.9)
Cough ~ 243 10.2 (9.4) 8.5 (7.3)
Difficulty breathing ~ 243 10.6 (10.9) 8.2 (7.7)
Runny nose ~ 243 10.7 (8.5) 10.9 (7.3)
Sore throat ~ 243 10.0 (9.1) 9.1 (8.1)
Headache ~ 243 18.7 (13.3) 20.4 (13.1)
Chills ~ 243 6.6 (6.1) 5.3 (6.2)
Myalgias/Lethargy 243 19.0 (9.8) 18.0 (9.0)
Diarrhea ~ 243 3.3 (4.3) 4.6 (6.8)
Vomiting ~ 243 6.2 (9.0) 6.2 (8.9)
Total number of Respiratory symptom episodes* ~ 243 102.9 (49.7) 96.1 (41.3)
Infant characteristics   Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Weight of the infant(kg) 243 2.1 (0.2) 3.0 (0.4)
Height of the infant (cm) 243 45.6 (2.5) 49.5 (3.2)
MUAC** of infant (cm) 241 8.4 (0.9) 9.8 (0.8)
OFC*** of infant(cm) 242 31.7 (1.3) 34.2 (1.4)
  1. * Respiratory symptoms included eight symptoms (cough, difficulty breathing, runny nose, sore throat, headache, chills, and myalgia/lethargy)
  2. ~ Episodes per 100 weeks of pregnancy
  3. **Mid upper arm circumference
  4. ***Occipitofrontal circumference