Skip to main content

Table 3 Substances used, by category

From: Umbilical cord-care practices in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Category Substances Country/Countries
Oils Clove oil [55] Pakistan
Coconut oil [17, 34, 54, 55] Bangladesh, Pakistan
Cooking oil (sometimes recycled) [8, 23, 28] Nepal, Tanzania, Zambia
Mabono (wild fruit) oil [8] Zambia
Machine/motor oil [8, 34] Pakistan, Zambia
Mustard oil [10, 17, 34, 36, 54, 55, 57, 58, 62, 6668] Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan
Mustard oil with garlic [27] Bangladesh
Oil (unspecified) [19, 21, 29, 62] Ghana, India, Nepal, Tanzania
Oil with turmeric [68] Nepal
Olive oil [13, 25, 34] Pakistan, Turkey
Palm oil [12, 22] Haiti, Nigeria
Python oil [8] Zambia
Vegetable oil [26] Tanzania
Herbs/spices/plants Banana stem [24] Tanzania
Black sesame [13] Turkey
Burnt nutmeg [22] Haiti
Cassava [11] Sierra Leone
Dried roots [26] Tanzania
Ginger/chewed ginger [27, 54] Bangladesh
Hellebore [13] Turkey
Herbs (unspecified) [79, 12, 15, 20, 21, 23, 58, 60, 62] Ghana, India, Nepal, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
Kijinga (burning wood) [24] Tanzania
Mukunku (bark of a tree) [8] Zambia
Mustard with chopped, smashed garlic [17] Bangladesh
Myrtle [13] Turkey
Pou plant (juice) [21] Ghana
Pumpkin flowers (fluid) [23] Tanzania
Sap [9] Uganda
Spices (unspecified) [61, 62] Benin, Nepal
Turmeric/chewed turmeric [10, 27, 32, 34, 54, 55, 63] Bangladesh, India, Pakistan
Minerals/powders Antimony [10, 66] Pakistan
Ash [9, 19, 22, 23, 27, 28, 54, 61, 62, 64, 67, 69] Bangladesh, Benin, Haiti, India, Nepal, Tanzania, Uganda
Ash from burnt papyrus [7] Uganda
Bark [26] Tanzania
Black powder (burnt pumpkin stem) [8, 18] Zambia
Boric powder [17, 54] Bangladesh
Brick ash [18] Zambia
Chalk [12] Nigeria
Charcoal [8, 22, 24, 26, 37] Haiti, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia
Chular mati (earth from clay oven) [17] Bangladesh
Clay [61, 64] Benin, India
Dirt from pounding stick [8] Zambia
Dust/dust from threshold of home [8, 22, 24, 26] Haiti, Tanzania, Zambia
Ganda la popoo (dirty door powder from old door) [24] Tanzania
Green powder (ground dried roots of mweeye plant) [18] Zambia
Ground sea shell [24] Tanzania
Mud [8, 62, 67] Nepal, Zambia
Powder (unspecified) [7, 9, 10, 69] Pakistan, Uganda
Powder from ground local tree [23] Tanzania
Powder of papyrus reeds [60] Uganda
PPF powder (pyriproxyfen pesticide) [24] Tanzania
Red earth sand [21] Ghana
Rotten tree powder [13] Turkey
Salt [12, 61] Benin, Nigeria
Sandalwood powder [24] Tanzania
Soil/dirt/sand [12, 19] Nigeria, Tanzania
Soot/soot from cooking pot [9, 60, 65] Uganda
White powder [30] Nigeria
Dung Animal (unspecified) [65] Uganda
Animal (unspecified) mixed with leaves [22] Haiti
Chicken [8, 18] Zambia
Cow [8] Zambia
Lizard [69] Uganda
Water Hot water [15] Ghana
Numbati (water that has been used to wash an adult woman’s genitals) [23] Tanzania
Plain water [7, 28] Nepal, Uganda
Salty water [9, 20, 69] Uganda
Soapy water [20] Uganda
Bodily fluids Breast milk [8, 18, 19, 23, 62] Nepal, Tanzania, Zambia
Saliva [7, 9, 12, 24, 26, 57, 60, 62] Nepal, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda
Food Banana [8, 9] Uganda, Zambia
Butter [7, 14, 16, 56] Ethiopia, Uganda
Chewed rice [54] Bangladesh
Cream from sour milk [8] Zambia
Dry coffee [13, 25] Turkey
Fat and sugared fat [13] Turkey
Ghee [7, 10, 28, 29, 33, 34, 36, 55, 66] India, Nepal, Pakistan, Uganda
Ghee mixed with fried onions or mustard oil [33] Pakistan
Ghee mixed with soot [7] Uganda
Ground almonds [61] Benin
Ground shea nuts [21] Ghana
Matti (crushed apricot seeds) [10] Pakistan
Onion [7] Uganda
Wheat flour [10] Pakistan
Personal care/medical Alcohol [31] Egypt
Antibiotic powder [29] India
Antiseptic ointment [63] India
Antiseptics (unspecified) [26, 28, 31, 57, 58, 62, 67, 68] Egypt, India, Nepal, Tanzania
Baby powder/talcum powder [8, 17, 19, 20, 24, 26, 32, 55, 65] Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
Cold cream [10 Pakistan
Dettol [10, 52] Bangladesh, Pakistan
Gentian violet [14] Ethiopia
Hair lotion [14] Ethiopia
Herbal medicine (unspecified) [65] Uganda
Homeopathic medicine (unspecified) [17] Bangladesh
Iodine [14] Ethiopia
Kohl/surma (can contain lead and antimony) [31, 34, 36, 55] Egypt, Pakistan
Medicinal drugs (unspecified) [69] Uganda
Menthol-containing balm [12] Nigeria
Methylated spirit [12] Nigeria
Nebanol ointment [52] Bangladesh
Ointment (unspecified) [16, 55] Ethiopia, Pakistan
Petroleum jelly [79, 12, 14, 19] Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
Savlon [17] Bangladesh
Shea butter [15, 21] Ghana
Surgical spirit [7, 9, 15, 20, 26, 69] Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda
Toothpaste [12, 28, 37] Nigeria, Nepal
Other Burnt cloth/burned cotton [13, 22] Haiti, Turkey
Fish bone [24] Tanzania
Gamba la koa (shells) [24] Tanzania
Loma (crushed wasps nest) [8] Zambia
Tar [25] Turkey
“Other substances” [15, 56, 58, 62, 67] Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Nepal
Heat Burning tip of cord [63] India
Fire steam [24] Tanzania
Hot fomentation or shek dewa (dry or moist heat) [12, 15, 17, 27, 30, 37, 54] Bangladesh, Ghana, Nigeria
Hot knife [24] Tanzania