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Table 1 Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Study Participants. Obtained from Florida Birth Vital Statistics or Medicaid Claims Data

From: Combining adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes for women exposed to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy, using a latent trait model

Characteristics Valproate Sub-group N = 226 Total AED Groupa N = 3183 AED Unexposed Group N = 43,956 P Value** P Value***
Maternal age at infant born, Mean ± SD 25.9 ± 6.4 26.5 ± 6.0 24.6 ± 5.2 <.0001 0.0014
Father’s age at infant birth, Mean ± SD 52.1 ± 33.2 47.5 ± 30.7 43.3 ± 29.7 <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s Race, N (%)
 White 177 (72) 2200 (69) 20,333 (46) <.0001 <.0001
 Black 27 (11) 429 (13) 13,991 (32)
 Others 41 (17) 552 (17) 9550 (22)
Father’s Race, N (%)
 White 95 (39) 1455 (46) 15,669 (36) <.0001 <.0001
 Black 31 (13) 327 (10) 9733 (22)
 Others 32 (13) 474 (15) 8024 (18)
Father’s education level, N (%)
 Above High School 66 (40) 765 (33) 14,219 (41) <.0001 0.7107
Mother’s previous adverse pregnancy experience, N (%) 1 (0.7) 23 (1) 307 (2) 0.0237 0.3482
Mother’s receipt of any prenatal care, N (%) 143 (99) 2172 (99) 18,590 (98) 0.5571 0.0246
Mother’s total number of prenatal visits, Mean ± SD 11.1 ± 18.2 11.3 ± 16.9 8.8 ± 15.7 <.0001 0.0059
Mother’s marital status, Yes, N (%) 86 (35) 1137 (36) 18,041 (41) <.0001 0.1679
Mother’s parity (previous live births), Mean ± SD 1.1 ± 1.3 1.3 ± 5.1 1.7 ± 3.7 <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s tobacco use, N (%) 74 (31) 936 (30) 7133 (16) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s average tobacco use, Mean ± SD 4.8 ± 15.9 4.0 ± 13.5 1.7 ± 9.0 <.0001 0.0028
Mother’s alcohol use, N (%) 3 (1) 38 (1) 175 (0.4) <.0001 0.0183
Mother’s education level, N (%)
 Above High School 86 (37) 1173 (37) 16,772 (39) 0.0980 0.5377
Infant male gender, N (%) 120 (49) 1549 (49) 19,048 (43) <.0001 0.0001
Mother’s previous gestational diabetes, N (%) 6 (4) 84 (4) 604 (3) 0.1714 0.4170
Mother’s previous gestational hypertension, N (%) 6 (3) 138 (5) 1240 (3) <.0001 0.2559
Mother’s previous cesarean, N (%) 17 (13) 306 (14) 3056 (17) 0.0005 0.1819
Mother’s Epilepsy diagnosis during baseline and pregnancy, N (%) 60 (24) 571 (18) 81 (0.2) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s Anxiety diagnosis during baseline and pregnancy, N (%) 15 (6) 230 (7) 218 (0.5) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s Neural Pain diagnosis during baseline and pregnancy, N (%) 0 (0) 27 (0.9) 27 (0.1) <.0001 >.999
Mother’s Bipolar diagnosis during baseline and pregnancy, N (%) 56 (23) 444 (14) 499 (1.1) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s Depression diagnosis during baseline and pregnancy, N (%) 21 (9) 328 (10.3) 743 (1.7) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s Migraine diagnosis during baseline and pregnancy, N (%) 12 (5) 96 (3) 173 (0.4) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s mental disorder diagnoses during baseline and pregnancy, N (%) 90 (37) 1118 (35) 3777 (9) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s antipsychotic exposure during pregnancy, N (%) 50 (20) 338 (11) 275 (0.6) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s antidepressants exposure during pregnancy, N (%) 90 (37) 886 (28) 1281 (3) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s folic acid use during pregnancy, N (%) 150 (61) 1965 (62) 17,948 (41) <.0001 <.0001
Mother’s anxiolytics (including sedatives and hypnotics) exposure during pregnancy, N (%) 76 (31) 1832 (58) 1452 (3) <.0001 <.0001
Number of hospitalization for seizure during pregnancy, Median (min, max) 0 (0, 4) 0 (0, 6) 0 (0, 3) <.0001 <.0001
Number of physician visits with seizure diagnoses during pregnancy, Median (min, max), N (%) 0 (0, 3) 0 (0, 5) 0 (0, 6) <.0001 0.0208
Mother’s infection and parasitic diagnosis during baseline and pregnancy, N (%)b 30 (12) 355 (11) 2959 (7) <.0001 0.0006
Mother’s antibiotics exposure during pregnancy, N (%) 117 (48) 1418 (45) 13,854 (32) <.0001 <.0001
  1. aBy definition, total AED group includes the patients who used valproate
  2. bInclude including: Virus, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, HIV, Syphilis, Herpes simplex virus, Toxoplamosis, Varicella virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Phenylketonuria, Hypoxia
  3. **Compared between total AED group and AED unexposed group
  4. ***Compared between valproate subgroup and AED unexposed group