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Table 2 Studies reporting exclusive breastfeeding in Nepal, 2000–2014

From: Implications of methodological differences in measuring the rates of exclusive breastfeeding in Nepal: findings from literature review and cohort study

Reference Study design Source of data and sample size Definition of exclusive breastfeeding Indicator measure Reported EBF rate
Peer reviewed publications
Chandrashekhar et al. [39] cross-sectional primary data
(n = 385)
nothing else (except medicines) but breast milk recall-since-birth 82.3% among <2 months infants
Subba et al. [40] cross-sectional primary data (n = 168) not detailed not reported 60.5% at 5th month
Subedi et al. [37] cross-sectional primary data
(n = 261)
WHO, 2007 definition recall at 6–23 month 81.6% upto 6 months
Ulak et al. [38] cross-sectional primary data
(n = 325)
WHO, 2007 definition recall-at-9th month at 1st, 3rd and 6th months were 74%, 24% and 9%
Khanal et al. [16] cross-sectional NDHS 2006 (n = 482) and NDHS 2011 (n = 227) WHO, 2007 definition 24-h recall 53.2% in 2006 and 66.3% in
2011 among 0–5 month infants
Locks et al. [41] cross-sectional (subset of randomized control trial) primary data
(n = 750)
not reported 24-h recall 65% among 0–5 month infants
Karkee et al. [28] cohort primary data
(n = 639)
given breastmilk only without any other feeds (aside from medications) since birth recall-since-birth 84.4% during first month, 67.2% during 3 months, and 29.7% EBF at 6th month
National surveys
Ministry of Health and Population et al. (2001)
(NDHS 2001) [26]
cross-sectional primary data (n = 648) WHO, 1991 definition 24-h recall 68.3% among 0–5 month infants
Ministry of Health and Population et al. [27]
(NDHS 2006)
cross-sectional primary data (n = 477) WHO,1991a 24-h recall 53.0% among 0–5 month infants
Ministry of Health and Population et al. [25]
(NDHS 2011)
cross-sectional primary data (n = 537) WHO, 1991 24-h recall 69.6% among 0–5 month infants
Central Bureau of Statistics et al. (2010) (MICS) [30] cross-sectional primary data (n = 452) WHO, 2007 definitiona 24-h recall 63.9% among 0–5 month infants
  1. EBF exclusive breastfeeding, NDHS Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
  2. afrom personal communication with researcher involved in NDHS and MICS 4