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Table 3 Substance use before and during pregnancy among RPGEH Prenatal Cohort Participants compared to Non-Participants in Kaiser Permanente Northern California

From: The Kaiser Permanente Northern California research program on genes, environment, and health (RPGEH) pregnancy cohort: study design, methodology and baseline characteristics

  Overall Denominator (n = 87,928) Participants (n = 16,584) Non-Participants (n = 71,344)
Early Start Data   N (%)  
Smoking in 12 Months before Pregnancy
 Never 78,710 (89.5) 14,683 (88.5) 64,027 (89.7)
 Monthly or Less 2,944 (3.4) 623 (3.8) 2,321 (3.3)
 Weekly 1,304 (1.5) 230 (1.4) 1,074 (1.5)
 Daily 4,747 (5.4) 1,016 (6.1) 3,731 (5.2)
 Unknown 223 (0.2) 32 (0.2) 191 (0.3)
Smoking since Pregnancy
 Never 85,166 (96.9) 16,010 (96.5) 69,156 (96.9)
 Monthly or Less 789 (0.9) 159 (1.0) 630 (0.9)
 Weekly 537 (0.6) 117 (0.7) 420 (0.6)
 Daily 1,196 (1.3) 267 (1.6) 929 (1.3)
 Unknown 240 (0.3) 31 (0.2) 209 (0.3)
Alcohol in 12 Months before Pregnancy
 Never 28,267 (32.2) 4,202 (25.3) 24,065 (33.7)
 Monthly or less 39,589 (45.0) 7,908 (47.7) 31,681 (44.4)
 Weekly 18,102 (20.6) 4,058 (24.5) 14,044 (19.7)
 Daily 1,429 (1.6) 327 (2.0) 1,102 (1.6)
 Unknown 541 (0.6) 89 (0.5) 452 (0.6)
Alcohol since Pregnancy
 Never 78,796 (89.6) 14,551 (87.7) 64,245 (90.1)
 Monthly or Less 6,780 (7.7) 1,517 (9.2) 5,263 (7.3)
 Weekly 1,423 (1.6) 344 (2.1) 1,079 (1.5)
 Daily 179 (0.2) 34 (0.2) 145 (0.2)
 Unknown 750 (0.9) 138 (0.8) 612 (0.9)
Use of Prescription Drug in 12 Months before Pregnancya
 No 71,212 (81.0) 13,067 (78.8) 58,145 (81.5)
 Yes 16,066 (18.3) 3,403 (20.5) 12,663 (17.7)
 Unknown 650 (0.7) 114 (0.7) 536 (0.8)
Use of Prescription Drug since Pregnancy
 No 83,680 (95.2) 15,726 (94.8) 67,954 (95.3)
 Yes 3,871 (4.4) 799 (4.8) 3,072 (4.3)
 Unknown 377 (0.4) 59 (0.4) 318 (0.4)
Use of Illegal Drug in 12 Months before Pregnancyb
 No 79,954 (90.9) 14,790 (89.1) 65,164 (91.3)
 Yes 7,149 (8.1) 1,506 (9.1) 5,643 (7.9)
 Unknown 825 (1.0) 288 (1.8) 537 (0.8)
Use of Illegal Drug since Pregnancy
 No 85,202 (96.9) 15,878 (95.7) 69,324 (97.2)
 Yes 2,033 (2.3) 414 (2.5) 1,619 (2.3)
 Unknown 693 (0.8) 292 (1.8) 401 (0.5)
  1. aPrescription drugs in Early Start data include anxiety medications, pain medications, and sleep medications
  2. bIllegal drugs in Early Start data include Cocaine, Heroin, Marijuana, and Methamphetamines