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Table 4 Univariable and multivariable and logistic regression analysisa of poor-SRHb at three times post partumc

From: Self-reported pregnancy-related health problems and self-rated health status in Rwandan women postpartum: a population-based cross-sectional study

  Poor-SRHb at day one after delivery Poor-SRH at one month after delivery Poor-SRH at the time of the interview
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
Crude Odds Ratios and its 95 % CI Adjustedd Odds Ratios and its 95 % CI Crude Odds Ratios and its 95 % CI Adjustedd Odds Ratios and its 95 % CI Crude Odds Ratios and its 95 % CI Adjustedd Odds Ratios and its 95 % CI
Women’s age (years)
  < 25 1.02 (0.75–1.38) 1.07 (0.72–1.60) 1.93 (1.12–3.32) e 2.71 (1.30–5.62) 0.82 (0.51–1.31) 0.87 (0.46–1.64)
 25–34 1 1 1 1 1 1
  > 35 0.86 (0.57–1.31) 0.94 (0.56–1.58) 1.95 (0.99–3.85) 1.44 (0.61–3.40) 1.10 (0.62–1.94) 0.77 (0.37–1.57)
Place of delivery
 At health facility 1   1   1 1
 At home or on the way to health facility 0.75 (0.38–1.48)   1.83 (0.74–4.47)   2.48 (1.22–5.04) 1.92 (0.87–4.21)
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal (with or without instruments) 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Caesarean Section 3.48 (2.31–5.23) 3.20 (2.07–4.96) 2.28 (1.25–4.14) 2.25 (0.97–5.23) 0.62 (0.30–1.28) 0.66 (0.29–1.49)
Hypertension during pregnancy and delivery
 No 1 1 1 1 1  
 Yes 2.99 (1.67–5.37) 2.38 (1.22–4.62) 2.88 (1.34–6.21) 1.30 (0.47–3.55) 1.27 (0.55–2.92)  
Convulsions during pregnancy, delivery and post partum
 No 1   1 1 1  
 Yes 1.81 (0.92–3.58)   2.56 (1.02–6.40) 0.76 (0.21–2.67) 2.02 (0.86–4.77)  
Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy
 No 1   1   1  
 Yes 0.69 (0.25–1.93)   0.000   0.83 (0.19–3.65)  
Anemia during pregnancy
 No 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.59 (1.10–2.31) 1.34 (0.88–2.01) 2.19 (1.25–3.84) 2.37 (1.25–4.49) 4.33 (2.77–6.75) 4.45 (2.69–7.35)
Marital status
 Married or cohabiting 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Unmarried or single or widow or separated 1.42 (0.95–2.12) 1.60 (1.02–2.51) 1.05 (0.53–2.05) 1.51 (0.66–3.47) 0.60 (0.37–0.99) 0.49 (0.26–0.93)
Age at marriage (years)
  < 20 1   1   1  
  ≥ 20 1.21 (0.87–1.67)   1.25 (0.70–2.22)   0.81 (0.50–1.26)  
Number of births
 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 2–4 1.14 (0.82–1.59) 1.19 (0.80–1.76) 1.10 (0.61–1.96) 1.55 (0.74–3.22) 1.38 (0.82–2.32) 1.71 (0.89–3.29)
  > 4 0.72 (0.48–1.07) 0.76 (0.44–1.61) 1.15 (0.59–2.24) 2.26 (0.80–6.35) 1.87 (1.07–3.27) 2.42 (1.06–5.54)
Time when discharged (days)
  < 3 NAf   1 1 1  
 3    0.51 (0.26–0.99) 0.49 (0.24–0.99) 1.83 (0.42–7.90)  
 4–7    1.02 (0.49–2.11) 0.64 (0.25–1.64) 2.44 (0.56–10.62)  
  > 7    3.56 (1.50–8.44) 2.47 (0.83–7.30) 1.93 (0.41–9.05)  
Handicapping complication
 No 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 3.49 (1.76–6.92) 2.16 (0.99–4.69) 3.66 (1.60–8.36) 2.23 (0.80–6.23) 2.66 (1.21–5.82) 2.20 (0.89–5.47)
Health Insurance
 Yes 1 1 1   1  
 No 1.52 (1.09–2.12) 1.59 (1.11–2.28) 1.33 (0.76–2.34)   1.44 (0.91–2.30)  
Women’s education
 Completed secondary level or reached university level 1   1   1  
 Completed primary level 1.29 (0.80–2.09)   0.82 (0.37–1.81)   1.28 (0.64–2.58)  
 No education 1.45 (0.85–2.46)   1.26 (0.54–2.94)   0.84 (0.37–1.89)  
Woman occupation
 Employed 1   1   1  
 Non employed 1.05 (0.77–1.43)   1.08 (0.63–1.88)   0.92 (0.59–1.44)  
Infection during pregnancy
 No 1   1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.97 (0.36–2.58)   7.50 (2.85–19.70) 6.94 (2.14–22.53) 4.64 (1.78–12.08) 3.73 (1.20–11.59)
Alcohol
 No 1   1   1  
 Yes 1.18 (0.86–1.63)   1.70 (0.91–3.16)   1.36 (0.83–2.21)  
Smoking
 No 1   1   1  
 Yes 0.57 (0.21–1.57)   0.52 (0.07–3.98)   1.61 (0.53–4.83)  
Severe bleeding during pregnancy and labour
 No 1 1 1 1 1  
 Yes 2.17 (1.09–4.31) 1.74 (0.77–3.92) 3.27 (1.37–7.80) 2.96 (1.09–8.02) 1.04 (0.36–3.03)  
Significant blood loss after delivery
 No 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 2.14 (1.38–3.31) 2.04 (1.24–3.35) 2.67 (1.44–4.94) 1.77 (0.81–3.82) 2.21 (1.27–3.83) 1.22 (0.60–2.45)
Breast feeding
 Yes NAf   1 1 1  
 No    5.97 (1.07–33.21) 9.54 (1.50–60.39) 0  
Household income per month
  > 35,000 RWF 1   1   1 1
 17,500–35,000 RWF 1.05 (0.73–1.49)   1.35 (0.73–2.49)   1.54 (0.91–2.63) 1.47 (0.83–2.62)
  < 17,500 RWF 1.21 (0.86–1.70)   1.25 (0.68–2.30)   1.82 (1.09–3.02) 1.65 (0.94–2.87)
  1. aUnivariable logistic regression analysis with calculation of crude odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI)
  2. bPoor-SRH (Poor self-rated health status) includes very poor and poor health status categories and Good-SRH (Good self-rated health status) includes very good and good health status categories
  3. cThree post partum times: one day, one month after delivery, and at the time of the interview
  4. dAdjusted Odds Ratios for women’s age, number of births, mode of delivery, and marital status
  5. eStatistically significant odds ratios are in bold
  6. fNA: Not applicable