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Table 3 Good-SRHa and poor-SRHb in relation to background variables. Univariable logistic regression analysisc for poor-SRH in relation to background variables at three timesd

From: Self-reported pregnancy-related health problems and self-rated health status in Rwandan women postpartum: a population-based cross-sectional study

  SRH at day one after delivery SRH at one month after delivery SRH at the time of the interview
  Good-SRH Poor-SRH Crude OR and its 95 % CI Good-SRH Poor-SRH Crude OR and its 95 % CI Good-SRH Poor-SRH Crude OR and its 95 % CI
Women’s age (years)
  < 25 198 (67.6 %) 97 (32.4 %) 1.02 (0.75–1.38) 265 (89.8 %) 30 (10.2 %) 1.93 (1.12–3.32) e 263 (89.8 %) 30 (10.2 %) 0.82 (0.51–1.31)
 25–34 329 (67.1 %) 158 (32.9 %) 1 461 (94.5 %) 27 (5.5 %) 1 427 (87.9 %) 59 (12.1 %) 1
  ≥ 35 96 (70.6 %) 40 (29.4 %) 0.86 (0.57–1.31) 122 (89.7 %) 14 (10.3 %) 1.95 (0.99–3.85) 118 (86.8 %) 18 (13.2 %) 1.10 (0.62–1.94)
Place of delivery
 At health facility 589 (67.5 %) 283 (32.5 %) 1 806 (92.4 %) 66 (7.6 %) 1 772 (89.0 %) 95 (11.0 %) 1
 At home or on the way to health facility 33 (73.3 %) 12 (26.7 %) 0.75 (0.38–1.48) 40 (87.0 %) 6 (13.0 %) 1.83 (0.74–4.47) 36 (76.6 %) 11 (23.4 %) 2.48 (1.22–5.04)
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal (with or without instruments) 569 (71.1 %) 231 (28.9 %) 1 746 (93.1 %) 55 (6.9 %) 1 699 (87.7 %) 98 (12.3 %) 1
 Caesarean Section 46 (41.4 %) 65 (58.6 %) 3.48 (2.31–5.23) 95 (85.6 %) 16 (14.4 %) 2.28 (1.25–4.14) 102 (91.9 %) 9 (8.1 %) 0.62 (0.30–1.28)
Hypertension during pregnancy and delivery
 No 602 (69.2 %) 268 (30.8 %) 1 808 (92.8 %) 63 (7.2 %) 1 767 (88.5 %) 100 (11.5 %) 1
 Yes 21 (42.9 %) 28 (57.1 %) 2.99 (1.67–5.37) 40 (81.6 %) 9 (18.4 %) 2.88 (1.34–6.21) 42 (85.7 %) 7 (14.3 %) 1.27 (0.55–2.92)
Convulsions during pregnancy, delivery and post partum
 No 604 (68.3 %) 280 (31.7 %) 1 819 (92.5 %) 66 (7.5 %) 1 782 (88.7 %) 100 (11.3 %) 1
 Yes 19 (54.3 %) 16 (45.7 %) 1.81 (0.92–3.58) 29 (82.9 %) 6 (17.1 %) 2.56 (1.02–6.40) 27 (79.4 %) 7 (20.6 %) 2.02 (0.86–4.77)
Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy
 No 608 (67.6 %) 291 (32.4 %) 1 828 (92.0 %) 72 (8.0 %) 1 791 (88.3 %) 105 (11.7 %) 1
 Yes 15 (75.0 %) 5 (25.0 %) 0.69 (0.25–1.93) 20 (100.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0.000 18 (90.0 %) 2 (10.0 %) 0.83 (0.19–3.65)
Anaemia during pregnancy
 No 542 (69.4 %) 239 (30.6 %) 1 729 (93.2 %) 53 (6.8 %) 1 711 (91.4 %) 67 (8.6 %) 1
 Yes 81 (58.7 %) 57 (41.3 %) 1.59 (1.10–2.31) 119 (86.2 %) 19 (13.8 %) 2.19 (1.25–3.84) 98 (71.0 %) 40 (29.0 %) 4.33 (2.77–6.75)
Marital status
 Married or cohabiting 514 (66.6 %) 258 (33.4 %) 1 712 (92.1 %) 61 (7.9 %) 1 687 (89.2 %) 83 (10.8 %) 1
 Unmarried or single or widow or separated 108 (74.0 %) 38 (26.0 %) 1.42 (0.95–2.12) 135 (92.5 %) 11 (7.5 %) 1.05 (0.53–2.05) 121 (83.4 %) 24 (16.6 %) 0.60 (0.37–0.99)
Age at marriage (years)
  < 20 170 (69.7 %) 74 (30.3 %) 1 227 (93.0 %) 17 (7.0 %) 1 212 (86.9 %) 32 (13.1 %) 1
  ≥ 20 365 (65.4 %) 193 (34.6 %) 1.21 (0.87–1.67) 511 (91.4 %) 48 (8.6 %) 1.25 (0.70–2.22) 496 (89.2 %) 60 (10.8 %) 0.81 (0.50–1.26)
Number of births
 1 185 (67.8 %) 88 (32.2 %) 1 253 (92.7 %) 20 (7.3 %) 1 248 (91.2 %) 24 (8.8 %) 1
 2–4 258 (64.7 %) 141 (35.3 %) 1.14 (0.82–1.59) 368 (92.0 %) 32 (8.0 %) 1.10 (0.61–1.96) 351 (88.2 %) 47 (11.8 %) 1.38 (0.82–2.32)
  > 4 160 (74.4 %) 55 (25.6 %) 0.72 (0.48–1.07) 197 (91.6 %) 18 (8.4 %) 1.15 (0.59–2.24) 182 (84.7 %) 33 (15.3 %) 1.87 (1.07–3.27)
Discharge time (days)
  < 3 345 (72.8 %) 129 (27.2 %) NAf 435 (91.8 %) 39 (8.2 %) 1 422 (89.4 %) 50 (10.6 %) 1
 3 189 (69.2 %) 84 (30.8 %) 261 (95.6 %) 12 (4.4 %) 0.51 (0.26–0.99) 235 (86.4 %) 37 (13.6 %) 1.83 (0.42–7.90)
 4–7 61 (51.3 %) 58 (48.7 %) 109 (91.6 %) 10 (8.4 %) 1.02 (0.49–2.11) 104 (88.9 %) 13 (11.1 %) 2.44 (0.56–10.62)
>7 13 (39.4 %) 20 (60.6 %) 25 (75.8 %) 8 (24.2 %) 3.56 (1.50–8.44) 31 (93.9 %) 1 (6.1 %) 1.93 (0.41–9.05)
Handicapping complication
 No 609 (69.0 %) 274 (31.0 %) 1 820 (92.8 %) 64 (7.2 %) 1 782 (88.9 %) 17 (1.9 %) 1
 Yes 14 (38.9 %) 22 (61.1 %) 3.49 (1.76–6.92) 28 (77.8 %) 8 (22.2 %) 3.66 (1.60–8.36) 27 (75.0 %) 9 (25.0 %) 2.66 (1.21–5.82)
Health Insurance
 Yes 511 (69.7 %) 222 (30.3 %) 1 679 (92.6 %) 54 (7.4 %) 1 650 (89.2 %) 79 (10.8 %) 1
 No 112 (60.2 %) 74 (39.8 %) 1.52 (1.09–2.12) 168 (90.4 %) 18 (9.6 %) 1.33 (0.76–2.34) 159 (85.0 %) 28 (15.0 %) 1.44 (0.91–2.30)
Women’s education
 Completed secondary level and reached university level 141 (65.3 %) 75 (34.7 %) 1 194 (89.8 %) 22 (10.2 %) 1 195 (91.1 %) 19 (8.9 %) 1
 Completed primary level 411 (67.8 %) 195 (32.2 %) 1.29 (0.80–2.09) 565 (93.1 %) 42 (6.9 %) 0.82 (0.37–1.81) 527 (87.1 %) 78 (12.9 %) 1.28 (0.64–2.58)
 No education 71 (73.2 %) 26 (26.8 %) 1.45 (0.85–2.46) 89 (91.8 %) 8 (8.2 %) 1.26 (0.54–2.94) 87 (89.7 %) 10 (10.3 %) 0.84 (0.37–1.89)
Woman occupation
 Employed 437 (67.3 %) 212 (32.7 %) 1 598 (92.0 %) 52 (8.0 %) 1 575 (88.6 %) 74 (11.4 %) 1
 Non employed 176 (68.5 %) 81 (31.5 %) 1.05 (0.77–1.43) 238 (92.6 %) 19 (7.4 %) 1.08 (0.63–1.88) 223 (87.8 %) 31 (12.2 %) 0.92 (0.59–1.44)
Infection during pregnancy
 No 610 (67.8 %) 290 (32.2 %) 1 836 (92.8 %) 65 (7.2 %) 1 797 (88.9 %) 100 (11.1 %) 1
 Yes 13 (68.4 %) 6 (31.6 %) 0.97 (0.36–2.58) 12 (63.2 %) 7 (36.8 %) 7.50 (2.85–19.70) 12 (63.2 %) 7 (36.8 %) 4.64 (1.78–12.08)
Alcohol
 No 450 (66.8 %) 224 (33.2 %) 1 616 (91.3 %) 59 (8.7 %) 1 589 (87.5 %) 84 (12.5 %) 1
 Yes 172 (70.5 %) 72 (29.5 %) 1.18 (0.86–1.63) 231 (94.7 %) 13 (5.3 %) 1.70 (0.91–3.16) 220 (90.5 %) 23 (9.5 %) 1.36 (0.83–2.21)
Smoking
 No 605 (67.5 %) 291 (32.5 %) 1 826 (92.1 %) 71 (7.9 %) 1 790 (88.5 %) 103 (11.5 %) 1
 Yes 18 (78.3 %) 5 (21.7 %) 0.57 (0.21–1.57) 22 (95.7 %) 1 (4.3 %) 0.52 (0.07–3.98) 19 (82.6 %) 4 (17.4 %) 1.61 (0.53–4.83)
Severe bleeding during pregnancy and labour
 No 606 (68.5 %) 279 (31.5 %) 1 821 (92.7 %) 65 (7.3 %) 1 780 (88.3 %) 103 (11.7 %) 1
 Yes 17 (50.0 %) 17 (50.0 %) 2.17 (1.09–4.31) 27 (79.4 %) 7 (20.6 %) 3.27 (1.37–7.80) 29 (87.9 %) 4 (12.1 %) 1.04 (0.36–3.03)
Significant blood loss after delivery
 No 576 (69.6 %) 252 (30.4 %) 1 772 (93.1 %) 57 (6.9 %) 1 737 (89.3 %) 88 (10.7 %) 1
 Yes 47 (51.6 %) 44 (48.4 %) 2.14 (1.38–3.31) 76 (83.5 %) 15 (16.5 %) 2.67 (1.44–4.94) 72 (79.1 %) 19 (20.9 %) 2.21 (1.27–3.83)
Breast feeding
 Yes NAf    837 (92.3 %) 70 (7.7 %) 1 798 (88.4 %) 105 (11.6 %) 1
 No     4 (66.7 %) 2 (33.3 %) 5.97 (1.07–33.21) 6 (100.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 000000
Household income per month
  > 35,000 RWF 253 (69.7 %) 110 (30.3 %) 1 339 (93.4 %) 24 (6.6 %) 1 333 (91.5 %) 31 (8.5 %) 1
 17,500–35,000 RWF 164 (68.6 %) 75 (31.4 %) 1.05 (0.73–1.49) 219 (91.3 %) 21 (8.8 %) 1.35 (0.73–2.49) 208 (87.5 %) 30 (12.6 %) 1.54 (0.91–2.63)
<17,500 RWF 169 (65.5 %) 89 (34.5 %) 1.21 (0.86–1.70) 237 (91.9 %) 21 (8.1 %) 1.25 (0.68–2.30) 218 (85.5 %) 37 (14.5 %) 1.82 (1.09–3.02)
  1. aGood-SRH (Self-rated health status) includes very good and good health status categories
  2. bPoor-SRH (Self-rated health status) includes very poor and poor health status categories
  3. cUnivariable logistic regression analysis with calculation of crude odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI)
  4. dThree times post partum: one day, one month after delivery, and at the time of the interview
  5. eStatistically significant odds ratios are in bold
  6. fNA: Not applicable