Skip to main content

Table 2 Underlying causes and contributory factors of potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTC) and severe maternal outcomesa

From: Maternal Near Miss and quality of care in a rural Rwandan hospital

  Women with PLTC MNM Maternal deaths MNMR/1000 live birth Mortality index
332 (%) 86 (%) 13 (%)   (%)
Underlying causesb
 Severe hemorrhage 134 (40.4) 49 (57) 3 (23.1) 12.3 (9.2–16.1) 5.8 (1.5–15.7)
  Abortion 33 (9.9) 7 (8.1) 0 (0)   
  Ectopic 21 (6.3) 13 (15.2) 0 (0)   
  Molar 4 (1.2) 0 (0) 0 (0)   
  Placental abruption 10 (3.0) 4 (4.6) 0 (0)   
  Placenta Previa 17 (5.1) 6 (7.0) 0 (0)   
  Postpartum Hemorrhage 49 (14.8) 19 (22.1) 3 (23.1)   
 Hypertensive disorders 93 (28.0) 27 (31.4) 4 (30.7) 6.8 (4.6–9.7) 13 (4.1–31.1)
  Severe Pre-eclampsia 40 (43.0) 7 (8.1) 0 (0)  
  Eclampsia 53 (57.0) 20 (23.3) 4 (30.7)   
 Pregnancy related infectionsc 40 (12.1) 0 (0) 2 (15.4)  
 Sepsis/peritonitis post-cesarean 38 (11.4) 4 (4.7) 2 (15.4) 1.0 (0.3–2.4) 33.3 (5.6–110.1)
 Unanticipated complications of managementd 0 (0) 2 (2.3) 1 (7.7) 0.5 (0.1–1.7) 14.3 (1.6–164.4)
 Coincidental conditionse 2 (0.6) 0 (0) 0 (0.0)  
 Unknown 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (7.7)  
 Other obstetric complicationsf 16 (4.8) 4 (4.7)   
Associated conditions
 Anemia 73 (22) 21 (24.4) 4 (30.8) 5.3 (3.3–7.9) 16.0 (5.1–38.6)
 HIV 16 (4.8) 8 (9.3) 2 (15.4) 2.0 (0.9–3.8) 20.0 (3.3–66.1)
 Previous CS 22 (6.6) 12 (14) 1 (7.7) 3.0 (1.6–5.1) 7.7 (0.3–37.9)
 Prolonged/obstructed Labor 5 (1.5) 5 (5.8) 1 (7.7) 1.3 (0.5–2.8) 16.7 (0.8–82.2)
 Lack of medical Insurance 28 (8.4) 23 (26.7) 4 (30.8) 5.8 (3.7–8.5) 14.8 (4.7–35.7)
  1. aValues given as number (percentages)
  2. bOne woman could have experienced more than one cause
  3. cPyelonephritis (12 PLTC), Hyperemesis (10 PLTC), Choriamnionitis (8 PLTC), Endometritis (8 PLTC), severe malaria (2 PLTC, 1 MD), HIV encephalopathy (1 MD)
  4. dIatrogenic complications (2 MNM, 1 MD)
  5. eRoad traffic accident, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (2 PLTC)
  6. fAsthmatic crisis (6 PLTC), Herbal intoxication (4 PLTC), Epilepsy (3 PLTC, 1 MNM), Unknown cause of Jaundice (2 PLTC), Blood transfusion reaction (1 PLTC, 1MNM), Peripartum cardiomyopathy (2 MNM)