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Table 9 Sensitivity analysis including stillbirths: Crude odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) expressing the association between early antepartum characteristics and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), United States, 2005–2006

From: Heterogeneity of respiratory distress syndrome: risk factors and morbidity associated with early and late gestation disease

  Unadjusted odds ratios [95 % CI]
RDS < 32 weeks RDS 32–36 weeks RDS 37–38 weeks RDS ≥39 weeks
Maternal age <20 years 1.38 [1.29, 1.48] 1.00 [0.94, 1.06] 0.83 [0.74, 0.92] 1.25 [1.14, 1.37]
20–34 Reference Reference Reference Reference
≥35 1.06 [1.04, 1.08] 1.03 [1.01, 1.04] 0.97 [0.95, 1.00] 0.95 [0.92, 0.98]
Multifetal gestation 11.6 [11.1, 12.2] 9.60 [9.20, 10.0] 3.63 [3.16, 4.17] 3.60 [2.65, 4.91]
Smoking 1.48 [1.38, 1.58] 1.37 [1.30, 1.44] 1.55 [1.42, 1.68] 1.49 [1.36, 1.62]
Diabetes 1.63 [1.48, 1.79] 2.35 [2.20, 2.51] 2.95 [2.66, 3.26] 1.76 [1.53, 2.02]
Chronic hypertension 4.57 [4.10, 5.08] 3.51 [3.18, 3.87] 3.35 [2.81, 4.00] 1.78 [1.34, 2.36]
Any congenital anomaly 10.3 [9.61, 11.0] 5.20 [4.84, 5.58] 6.67 [5.97, 7.45] 7.55 [6.78, 8.42]
Male sex 1.11 [1.06, 1.16] 1.42 [1.37, 1.47] 1.70 [1.59, 1.81] 1.48 [1.39, 1.57]