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Table 8 Rates respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) at 32–36 weeks and 37–38 weeks per 1000 live births among infants with other neonatal morbidity, and unadjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) expressing the association between neonatal comorbidity and RDS at 32–36 weeks and 37–38 weeks, United States, 2005–2006

From: Heterogeneity of respiratory distress syndrome: risk factors and morbidity associated with early and late gestation disease

  RDS 32–36 weeks RDS 37–38 weeks
No. Rate per 1000 Odds ratio [95 % CI] No. Rate per 1000 Odds ratio [95 % CI]
Apgar at 5 minutes <4 165 85.2 3.13 [2.67, 3.68] 50 34.5 11.4 [8.6, 15.1]
4–6 733 99.9 3.73 [3.45, 4.04] 309 45.1 15.0 [13.3, 16.9]
≥7 11,009 28.9 Reference 3917 3.1 Reference
Small for gestational age 2202 32.7 1.09 [1.04, 1.14] 645 4.8 1.48 [1.36, 1.61]
Neonatal seizures 27 102.3 3.63 [2.44, 5.40] 12 20.1 6.04 [3.41, 10.70]
Ventilation ≥ 30 min 3428 236.1 13.4 [12.8, 14.0] 858 144.4 61.5 [56.8, 66.6]
Ventilation <30 min 766 64.9 2.29 [2.12, 2.47] 294 16.3 5.14 [4.56, 5.79]
Birth asphyxia 4244 153.1 8.37 [8.05, 8.71] 1175 46.3 19.2 [18.0, 20.6]
Meconium aspiration syndrome 38 140.7 5.22 [3.70, 7.36] 66 72.8 23.3 [18.1, 30.0]
All live births 11,942 30.5 - 4292 3.4 -
  1. Birth asphyxia was defined as Apgar at 5 minute <4, presence of neonatal seizures, or any assisted ventilation. Births with missing Apgar values excluded from the analysis. Odds ratios were estimated by contrasting outcomes among those with and those without the risk factor e.g., RDS at 37–38 weeks among infants with and without meconium aspiration syndrome