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Table 4 Rates respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) at early (<32 weeks) and late (≥39 weeks) gestation per 1000 live births and unadjusted odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) expressing the association between neonatal co-morbidity and RDS, United States, 2005–2006

From: Heterogeneity of respiratory distress syndrome: risk factors and morbidity associated with early and late gestation disease

  RDS <32 weeks RDS ≥39 weeks
No. Rate per 1000 Odds ratio [95 % CI] No. Rate per 1000 Odds ratio [95 % CI]
Apgar at 5 min <4 404 111.5 1.03 [0.92, 1.14] 108 45 33.1 [27.2, 40.2]
4–6 1272 142.1 1.36 [1.27, 1.45] 421 34.1 24.8 [22.4, 27.5]
≥7 5688 108.8 Reference 3741 1.4 Reference
Small for gestational age 786 113 1.00 [0.92, 1.08] 562 2.6 1.73 [1.58, 1.89]
Neonatal seizures 30 428.6 5.90 [3.67, 9.47] 30 22.6 14.4 [10.0, 20.7]
Ventilation ≥ 30 min 4416 320.9 7.64 [7.26, 8.04] 695 93.6 75.9 [69.7, 82.6]
Ventilation <30 min 503 145.4 1.36 [1.23, 1.50] 351 9.5 6.36 [5.70, 7.10]
Birth asphyxia 4983 255.5 6.20 [5.88, 6.53] 1106 23.5 19.7 [18.4, 21.2]
Meconium aspiration syndrome 10 192.3 1.87 [0.94, 3.72] 228 57.6 39.8 [34.7, 45.6]
All live births 7450 113.2 - 4287 1.6 -
  1. Birth asphyxia was defined as Apgar at 5 min <4, presence of neonatal seizures, or any assisted ventilation. Births with missing Apgar values excluded from the analysis