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Table 2 Factors associated with birth before arrival at a facility based on household survey in rural Tanzania*

From: Poverty, partner discord, and divergent accounts; a mixed methods account of births before arrival to health facilities in Morogoro Region, Tanzania

  No matching unadjusted odds ratio (CI) No matching adjusted odds ratio (CI) Matchingaunadjusted odds ratio (CI) Matchingaadjusted odds ratio (CI) Matchingbunadjusted odds ratio (CI) Matchingbadjusted odds ratio (CI)
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Column 6
Age p = 0.228 p = 0.931 p = 0.307 NA p = 0.217 NA
 Under 16 years 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 16 to 19 years 1.58 (0.67, 3.71) 1.07 (0.31, 3.70) 1.77 (0.76, 4.10)   1.82 (0.80, 4.17)  
 More than 19 years 2.15 (0.89, 5.19) 1.28 (0.32, 5.22) 1.96 (0.82, 4.72)   2.19 (0.90, 5.33)  
Age at first pregnancy p = 0.008 p = 0.074 p = 0.040 p = 0.063 NA NA
 Under 16 years 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)   
 16 to 19 years 0.59 (0.27, 1.26) 0.79 (0.33, 1.86) 0.65 (0.30, 1.38) 0.68 (0.31, 1.46)   
 More than 19 years 0.29 (0.13, 0.65) 0.48 (0.18, 1.27) 0.35 (0.16, 0.80) 0.38 (0.16, 0.87)   
Parity p = 0.009 p = 0.108 p = 0.019 p = 0.023 p = 0.027 p = 0.024
 1 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1
 2–3 3.93 (1.36, 11.36) 4.79 (0.94, 24.5) 4.01 (1.41, 11.4) 3.88 (1.33, 11.3) 3.98 (1.39, 11.4) 4.05 (1.37, 11.9)
 4+ 5.14 (1.82, 14.56) 4.65 (0.74, 29.1) 4.22 (1.52, 11.8) 4.47 (1.53, 13.1) 3.90 (1.40, 10.8) 4.30 (1.49, 12.4)
Woman's education p = 0.108 p = 0.896 p = 0.735 NA p = 0.661 NA
 None 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Some Primary 0.57 (0.19, 1.68) 0.87 (0.24, 3.11) 0.71 (0.23, 2.18)   0.51 (0.14, 1.84)  
 Primary Complete 0.51 (0.27, 0.96) 0.91 (0.37, 2.26) 0.76 (0.40, 1.45)   0.82 (0.42, 1.60)  
 Secondary or Higher 0.16 (0.02, 1.22) 0.87 (0.10, 7.55) 0.37 (0.04, 3.07)   0.39 (0.05, 3.19)  
Partner's education p = 0.425 p = 0.583 p = 0.773 NA p = 0.794 NA
 None/Some Primary 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Primary Complete 1.08 (0.31, 3.7) 2.59 (0.54, 12.4) 1.43 (0.40, 5.05)   1.53 (0.44, 5.41)  
 Secondary or Higher 0.21 (0.02, 2.13) 1.25 (0.11, 14.4) 0.56 (0.05, 5.84)   0.69 (0.06, 7.42)  
 None Reported 1.18 (0.30, 4.72) 4.01 (0.72, 22.5) 1.48 (0.37, 5.96)   1.60 (0.39, 6.50)  
Asset index quintile p < 0.001 p < 0.001 NA NA NA NA
 Lowest 1 (ref) 1 (ref)     
 Second 1.43 (0.80, 2.57) 1.08 (0.48, 2.47)     
 Middle 0.61 (0.26, 1.43) 0.80 (0.31, 2.07)     
 Fourth 0.31 (0.13, 0.74) 0.36 (0.15, 0.91)     
 Highest 0.12 (0.03, 0.38) 0.15 (0.04, 0.58)     
ANC visits p = 0.009 p = 0.006 p = 0.010 p = 0.006 p = 0.051 p = 0.015
 2 or fewer 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1
 3 visits 0.37 (0.17, 0.82) 0.34 (0.14, 0.81) 0.33 (0.14, 0.80) 0.32 (0.13, 0.27) 0.36 (0.14, 0.89) 0.32 (0.13, 0.78)
 4 or more 0.38 (0.20, 0.72) 0.34 (0.16, 0.71) 0.35 (0.17, 0.71) 0.33 (0.17, 0.66) 0.40 (0.18, 0.88) 0.33 (0.15, 0.72)
Relationship to head of household p = 0.506 p = 0.866 p = 0.646 NA p = 0.579 NA
 Self 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Wife 0.76 (0.33, 1.77) 1.07 (0.38, 3.03) 0.84 (0.36, 1.93)   0.80 (0.34, 1.87)  
 Other 0.55 (0.20, 1.51) 0.76 (0.26, 2.20) 0.63 (0.23, 1.71)   0.59 (0.21, 1.62)  
  1. *P-values are based on a Wald joint significance test
  2. aFor these ORs, 1111 facility births were matched to 59 BBAs on asset index prior to analysis
  3. bFor these ORs, 876 facility births were matched to 58 BBAs on asset index and age at first pregnancy prior to analysis