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Table 1 Pre-pregnancy characteristics of the study participants by smoking status

From: Are women who quit smoking at high risk of excess weight gain throughout pregnancy?

Maternal characteristics Women who never smoked
(N = 405)
Women who quit smoking
(N = 61)
Women who continued to smoke
(N = 43)
P-valuea
Age (years), mean (SD) 31.3 (5.0) 28.8 (6.3) 27.0 (4.5) < .001
Education (%)     < .001
 High school or less 8.4 27.9 48.8  
 Community college or some university 43.2 54.1 41.9  
 At least bachelor’s degree 48.4 18.0 9.3  
Household income (%)     < .001
 Less than $20,000 5.9 16.4 25.6  
 $20,000–$80,000 33.9 49.2 34.9  
 Over $80,000 47.8 24.6 16.3  
 Preferred not to answer 12.4 9.8 23.3  
Married, common-law or living with partner (%) 93.8 80.3 65.1 < .001
Caucasian (%) 78.2 88.5 85.7 .12
Nulliparous (%) 45.0 61.7 31.7 .01
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 25.7 (5.5) 25.5 (6.6) 27.0 (7.2) .26
BMI class (%)     .03
 Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2) 3.0 1.6 7.0  
 Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 51.6 62.3 44.2  
 Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) 26.4 24.6 14.0  
 Obese (≥30.0 kg/m2) 19.0 11.5 34.9  
  1. Abbreviation(s): BMI body mass index
  2. aP values were calculated with ANOVA for continuous variables and with Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables