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Table 2 Prevalence of multivitamin intake by maternal characteristics

From: Pre-pregnancy obesity and non-adherence to multivitamin use: findings from the National Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (2009–2011)

  No intake n = 2 946 523 1–3 times/week n = 444 399 4–6 times/week n = 323 867 Every day n = 1 607 653 P-value
Weighted row %
Body mass index      <.0001
  Underweight 61.6 8.5 4.6 25.3  
  Normal Weight 51.09 8.50 6.92 33.49  
  Overweight 56.47 8.33 6.07 29.13  
  Obese 60.9 8.3 5.0 25.8  
Socio-demographic
Age      <.0001
   ≤ 19 77.6 5.6 1.9 14.9  
  20–24 71.8 7.3 3.8 17.1  
  25─29 54.3 8.7 6.2 30.8  
  30–35 42.3 9.2 8.0 40.5  
   > 35 38.5 9.8 8.9 42.8  
Race/Ethnicity      <.0001
  White, non-Hispanic 49.2 8.6 7.5 34.7  
  Black, non-Hispanic 66.6 9.1 3.5 20.8  
  Hispanic 66.0 7.2 3.9 22.9  
  Other, non-Hispanic 54.1 8.2 6.1 31.6  
Married      <.0001
  Yes 43.5 9.2 8.2 39.1  
  Other 73.2 7.1 2.9 16.8  
Education      <.0001
   < High school 71.0 6.7 2.9 19.4  
  High school 68.6 7.1 3.6 20.7  
   > High school 44.2 9.5 8.2 38.1  
Income      <.0001
   < $20,000 72.2 7.5 3.1 17.2  
  $20,000–34,999 62.7 8.6 5.2 23.5  
  $35,000–49,999 53.1 9.6 7.6 29.7  
   ≥ $50,000 33.0 9.0 9.8 48.2  
Pre-pregnancy Insurance      <.0001
  Private 42.8 9.0 8.2 40.0  
  Medicaid 66.8 8.1 3.6 21.5  
  Other 61.3 8.7 4.5 25.5  
  Multiple 57.4 8.1 3.9 30.6  
  No insurance 73.5 7.2 3.6 15.7  
Medical-reproductive
Previous live birth      <.0001
  0 54.8 7.1 5.4 32.7  
  1–2 54.6 9.0 6.6 29.8  
   ≥ 3 60.94 10.1 6.5 22.54  
Pre-pregnancy diabetes      <.0001
  No 55.5 8.3 6.1 30.1  
  Yes 50.9 8.6 4.7 35.8  
Pre-pregnancy hypertension      <.0001
  No 56.1 8.3 6.2 29.4  
  Yes 47.3 8.7 4.9 39.1  
Pregnancy intention      <.0001
  Unintended 71.9 8.1 4.00 16.0  
  Intended 43.0 8.5 7.6 40.9  
Socio-behavioral
Pre-pregnancy smoking      <.0001
  No 49.9 8.8 6.8 34.5  
  Yes 72.5 6.9 3.9 16.7  
Average # of alcohol drink/week      <.0001
  None 55.1 6.9 5.2 32.8  
  Up to 3 52.5 8.6 7.2 31.7  
  v4 or more 58.5 8.1 7.0 26.4  
Pre-pregnancy dieting      <.0001
  No 57.2 7.8 5.7 29.3  
  Yes 50.6 9.8 7.1 32.5  
Pre-pregnancy exercising      <.0001
  No 63.1 7.8 4.8 24.3  
  Yes 44.5 9.0 7.9 38.6  
Intimate partner violence      <.0001
  No 54.6 8.4 6.2 30.8  
  Yes 72.9 7.4 3.1 16.6  
  1. Weighted N = adjusted for the complex sampling design and represents the total population that the sampled was derived from