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Table 1 Prevalence of cracked nipples according to different variables in Poisson regression analysis

From: Prevalence and factors associated with cracked nipples in the first month postpartum

Variables N (%) Cracked nipples First-stage Second-stage Third-stage Fourth-stage p a
n (%) PR (95 % CI) PR (95 % CI) PR (95 % CI) PR (95 % CI)
Mother’s age
 10–19 years 235 (18.91) 79 (19.85) 1.00 - - -  
 20–29 years 666 (53.58) 213 (53.52) 0.95 (0.76–1.18) - - -  
 30–39 years 321 (25.82) 100 (25.13) 0.99 (0.76–1.30) - - -  
 40–49 years 21 (1.69) 6 (1.51) 0.97 (0.46–2.03) - - -  
Education level
  ≤ primary school 445 (35.80) 117 (29.40) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  ≥ secondary school 798 (64.20) 281 (70.60) 1.22 (1.00–1.49) 1.24 (1.02–1.51) 1.20 (0.98–1.46) 1.23 (1.04–1.47) 0.016
Parity        
 Multiparous 607 (48.83) 160 (40.20) 1.00 - - -  
 Primiparous 636 (51.17) 238 (59.80) 1.42 (0.66–3.03) - - -  
Previous experience with breastfeeding
 Yes 589 (47.39) 155 (38.94) 1.00 - - -  
 No 654 (52.61) 243 (61.06) 0.92 (0.43–1.98) - - -  
Skin color
 Black/brown 1,013 (81.50) 322 (80.90) 1.00 - - -  
 White 230 (18.50) 76 (19.10) 0.97 (0.77–1.22) - - -  
Family income
  ≥ 1 minimum salary 592 (47.63) 209 (52.51) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
  < 1 minimum salary 651 (52.37) 189 (47.49) 0.82 (0.68–0.99) 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 0.97 (0.79–1.19) 0.95 (0.78–1.15) 0.631
Living with child’s father
 Yes 1,070 (86.08) 337 (84.67) 1.00 - - -  
 No 173 (13.92) 61 (15.33) 1.13 (0.90–1.41) - - -  
Number of prenatal visits
  ≥ 6 visits 958 (77.07) 310 (77.89) - 1.00   -  
  < 6 visits 285 (22.93) 88 (22.11) - 1.07 (0.87–1.32)   -  
Guidance on breastfeeding received during prenatal care
 Yes 332 (26.71) 91 (22.86) - 1.00 - -  
 No 911 (73.29) 307 (77.14) - 1.11 (0.91–1.36) - -  
Type of prenatal care
 Public/publicly funded 841 (67.66) 243 (61.06) - 1.00 1.00 1.00  
 Private 402 (32.34) 155 (38.94) - 1.34 (1.07–1.69) 1.15 (0.82–1.60) 1.03 (0.82–1.30) 0.760
Type of delivery
 Vaginal 684 (55.03) 184 (46.23) - - 1.00 1.00  
 Cesarean section 559 (44.97) 214 (53.77) - - 1.31 (1.07–1.61) 1.33 (1.13–1.57) 0.001
Type of hospital
 Public/publicly funded 920 (74.01) 271 (68.09) - - 1.00 - -
 Private 323 (25.99) 127 (31.91) - - 0.92 (0.63–1.33) - -
Delivery at Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative-accredited facility
 Yes 312 (25.10) 66 (16.58) - - 1.00 1.00  
 No 931 (74.90) 332 (83.42) - - 1.48 (1.09–2.00) 1.51 (1.15–1.99) 0.003
Breastfeeding within the first hour after delivery
 Yes 584 (46.98) 177 (44.47) - - 1.00 -  
 No 659 (53.02) 221 (55.53) - - 1.06 (0.88–1.27) -  
Birth weight
  ≥ 2,500 g 1,185 (95.33) 381 (95.73) - - 1.00 -  
  < 2,500 g 58 (4.67) 17 (4.27) - - 0.92 (0.61–1.40) -  
Mother gets help with household chores
 Yes 940 (75.62) 304 (76.38) - - - 1.00  
 No 303 (24.38) 94 (23.62) - - - 1.11 (0.92–1.34) 0.258
Father helps take care of the child
 Yes 1,047 (84.23) 326 (81.91) - - - 1.00  
 No 196 (15.77) 72 (18.09) - - - 1.15 (0.94–1.42) 0.168
Type of nipple        
 Normal 1,178 (94.77) 371 (93.22) - - - 1.00  
 Flat/inverted/pseudo-inverted 65 (5.23) 27 (6.78) - - - 1.20 (0.90–1.61) 0.205
Fixed schedule to breastfeed at 30 days
 No 1,191 (95.82) 376 (94.47) - - - 1.00  
 Yes 52 (4.18) 22 (5.53) - - - 1.09 (0.77–1.54) 0.619
Mother knows how to express excess milk at 30 days
 Yes 885 (71.20) 288 (72.36) - - - 1.00  
 No 358 (28.80) 110 (27.64) - - - 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 0.752
Breastfeeding technique
 Proper 1,147 (92.28) 314 (78.89) - - - 1.00  
 Poor 96 (7.72) 84 (21.11) - - - 3.18 (2.72–3.72) 0.000
Breast engorgement
 No 830 (66.77) 201 (50.50) - - - 1.00  
 Yes 413 (33.23) 197 (49.50) - - - 1.70 (1.46–1.99) 0.000
Child’s sex
 Female 578 (46.50) 194 (48.74) - - - 1.00  
 Male 665 (53.50) 204 (51.26) - - - 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.088
Use of a pacifier at 30 days
 No 734 (59.05) 219 (55.03) - - - 1.00  
 Yes 509 (40.95) 179 (44.97) - - - 0.98 (0.84–1.16) 0.898
Use of a feeding bottle at 30 days
 No 1,010 (80.26) 297 (74.62) - - - 1.00  
 Yes 233 (18.74) 101 (25.38) - - - 1.29 (1.06–1.55) 0.008
  1. 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval, PR prevalence ratio, aRelated to fourth-stage analysis