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Table 1 Prevalence and predictors of a negative labour and birth experience based on a national survey of Canadian women

From: Predictors of a negative labour and birth experience based on a national survey of Canadian women

Predictors Sample size N a Negative experience Unadjusted odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio
N b (%) ORc (95 % CI)c ORc (95 % CI)c
Maternal Demographics
Age (years)
  <20 188 22 (11.5) 1   1  
  20–29 2941 238 (8.1) 0.68 0.46–1.00 1.42 0.84–2.40
  30–39 3033 306 (10.1) 0.86 0.59–1.27 1.90 1.08–3.34
  > = 40 189 20 (10.5) 0.91 0.48–1.73 2.29 1.03–5.07
Urban-rural residence
  Rural area 1100 84 (7.6) 1   1  
  Urban, population ≤499,999 2282 222 (9.7) 1.31 1.01–1.70 1.25 0.94–1.65
  Urban, population ≥500,000 2781 259 (9.3) 1.25 0.95–1.63 1.22 0.91–1.65
Immigration to Canada
  No 4960 448 (9.0) 1   1  
  Yes 1396 141 (10.1) 1.13 0.91–1.42 1.05 0.80–1.39
Ethnicity
  Non-Aboriginal 6087 563 (9.3) 1   1  
  Aboriginal 267 25 (9.4) 1.01 0.68–1.52 0.82 0.51–1.31
Level of education
  High school or less 1321 129 (9.8) 1   1  
  Some postsecondary education 2752 241 (8.7) 0.88 0.70–1.11 0.89 0.68–1.16
  Undergraduate education 1626 154 (9.5) 0.96 0.75–1.24 0.91 0.67–1.25
  Graduate education 623 63 (10.1) 1.03 0.74–1.43 1.01 0.68–1.49
Partner/Significant other
  No 528 57 (10.7) 1.20 0.90–1.60 1.08 0.76–1.53
  Yes 5832 532 (9.1) 1   1  
Maternal Health Characteristics
Moms perceived health
  Excellent/very good 4628 381 (8.2) 1   1  
  Good 1413 156 (11.1) 1.39 1.13–1.69 1.24 0.98–1.56
  Poor/Fair 340 53 (15.6) 2.07 1.50–2.84 1.95 1.36–2.80
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy
  No 5705 520 (9.1) 1   1  
  Yes 667 69 (10.4) 1.15 0.88–1.51 1.00 0.72–1.40
Alcohol use during pregnancy
  No 5681 546 (9.6) 1   1  
  Yes 664 44 (6.6) 0.66 0.47–0.92 0.69 0.48–1.00
Drug use during pregnancy
  No 6307 582 (9.2) 1   1  
  Yes 59 7 (11.7) 1.31 0.54–3.16 1.38 0.53–3.59
Work during pregnancy
  No 1966 183 (9.3) 1   1  
  Yes 4392 406 (9.2) 0.99 0.82–1.21 1.02 0.81–1.28
Experienced violence within last 2 years
  No 5657 494 (8.7) 1   1  
  Yes 693 92 (13.2) 1.59 1.24–2.05 1.62 1.21–2.18
Pregnancy-Related Characteristics
Number of past pregnancies
  None 2890 305 (10.6) 1.34 1.12–1.60 1.11 0.86–1.45
  1 or more 3474 282 (8.1) 1   1  
Attended prenatal classes
  No 4295 359 (8.4) 1   1  
  Yes 2085 231 (11.1) 1.37 1.14–1.64 1.36 1.06–1.76
Intended status of pregnancy
  Then or Sooner 4622 403 (8.7) 1   1  
  Later or Not at all 1713 182 (10.6) 1.24 1.02–1.51 1.30 1.03–1.63
Health problems during pregnancy
  No 4821 401 (8.3) 1   1  
  Yes 1556 188 (12.1) 1.51 1.25–1.82 1.43 1.16–1.76
Birth Characteristics
Type of birth
  Vaginal 4708 366 (7.8) 1   1  
  Caesarean 1676 224 (13.4) 1.83 1.52–2.21 1.65 1.32–2.06
Birth setting
  Hospital/clinic 6250 585 (9.4) 2.61 0.76–9.01 1.75 0.50–6.10
  Birthing centre/private/other 134 5 (3.8) 1   1  
Care provided was in language understood
  No 183 27 (14.8) 1   1  
  Yes 6170 561 (9.1) 1.13 0.93–1.38 1.21 0.96–1.51
Had to travel elsewhere for birth
  No 4744 426 (9.0) 1.74 1.09–2.77 1.41 0.78–2.58
  Yes 1637 165 (10.1) 1   1  
Healthcare provider attended birth
  Family doctor 5447 505 (9.3) 1.22 0.92–1.61 0.95 0.71–1.28
  Other 792 61 (7.8) 1   1  
Baby in intensive/special care unit
  No 5563 484 (8.7) 1   1  
  Yes 810 105 (12.9) 1.56 1.23–1.96 1.40 1.08–1.82
  1. aSample size is estimated using normalized weights
  2. bFrequencies are row percentages estimated using normalized weights
  3. cOR and 95 % CI were calculated using bootstrapping technique