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Table 2 Comparison of breastfeeding success and outcomes between vaginal deliveries, emergency c-sections and planned c-sections

From: The impact of caesarean section on breastfeeding initiation, duration and difficulties in the first four months postpartum

Characteristic Vaginal
N = 2279a
Emergency
c-section
N = 438a
Planned
c-section
N = 301a
P -value
  n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Planned to breastfeed
 Yes 2157 (96.6) 415 (96.3) 274 (92.6) 0.003
 No 75 (3.4) 16 (3.7) 22 (7.4)
Initiated breastfeeding
 Yes 2239 (98.2) 427 (97.5) 288 (95.7) 0.012
 No 40 (1.8) 11 (2.5) 13 (4.3)
Breastfed within 24 h
 Yes 2158(96.9) 392(92.7) 282(97.9) <0.001
 No 69(3.1) 31(7.3) 6(2.1)
Successful first attempt
 Yes 1677(75.6) 256(60.6) 214(74.3) <0.001
 No 542(24.4) 167(39.4) 74(25.7)
Successful when leaving hospital
 Yes 1908(90.7) 343(82.7) 263(92.3) <0.001
 No 196(9.3) 72(17.3) 22(7.7)
Seen LC before leaving hospital
 Yes 862 (40.0) 284 (67.1) 141 (49.3) <0.001
 No 1294 (60.0) 139 (32.9) 145 (50.7)
Sought additional support after leaving hospital
 Yes 1138 (51.9) 245 (57.8) 117 (40.6) <0.001
 No 1055 (48.1) 179 (42.2) 171 (59.4)
Difficulties with baby (baby having trouble latching or having a sleepy baby)
 Yes 1016 (44.6) 236 (53.9) 135 (44.9) 0.002
 No 1263 (55.4) 202 (46.1) 166 (55.1)
Discomfort (swollen breasts, sore nipples, or painful breasts)
 Yes 1468 (64.4) 245 (55.9) 182 (60.5) 0.002
 No 811 (35.6) 193 (44.1) 119 (39.5)
Other difficulties (not producing enough milk, flat or inverted nipples)
 Yes 658 (28.9) 180 (41.1) 98 (32.6) <0.001
 No 1621 (71.1) 258 (58.9) 203 (67.4)
  1. aDue to missing values, the denominator changes across variables