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Table 3 Birth outcomes among the non-GDM, GDM-nE and GDM-E groups

From: Exercise intervention during pregnancy can be used to manage weight gain and improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

  Preterm birth Macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) Low birth weight (birth weight < 2500 g) Caesarean delivery
n (%) OR 95 % CI n (%) OR 95 % CI n (%) OR 95 % CI n (%) OR 95 % CI
Total Sample 732(5.17)    1113(7.86)    142(1.06)    6009(42.4)   
Non-GDM 562(4.92) 1.00 Reference 840 (7.36) 1.00 Reference 109(1.00) 1.00 Reference 4647(40.7) 1.00 Reference
GDM-nE 55 (7.98) 1.68 (1.26–2.24) 77(11.18) 1.58 (1.2–2.03) 13(2.05) 2.06 (1.16–3.69) 343(49.8) 1.44 (1.24–1.67)
GDM-E 115(5.58) 1.14 (0.93–1.40) 196(9.51) 1.32 (1.12–1.56) 20(1.03) 1.02 (0.63–1.65) 1019(49.4) 1.43 (1.30–1.57)
  1. Pregnant women in the normal group were used as the reference
  2. Abbreviations: GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, OR odds ratios, CI confidence interval