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Table 4 Percentage of participants with high demoralisation score by demographic and postnatal variables

From: Early postnatal demoralisation among primiparous women in the community: measurement, prevalence and associated factors

   Geometric mean (SD) of the Demoralisation Scale Median (IQR) of the Demoralisation Scale Unstandardised regression coefficient (unadjusted) p
Language English (n = 333) 11.7 (2.1) 11.0 (7–18) Reference  
  Other (n = 67) 16.0 (1.9) 16.0 (10–26) 0.32 .001
Education Up to secondary (n = 74) 10.3 (2.1) 10.0 (7.0-19.0) Reference  
  Diploma/Certificate (n = 77) 13.4 (2.0) 12.0 (8.0-19.5) 0.25 .008
  Tertiary (n = 249) 12.7 (2.0) 12.0 (5.8-16.0) 0.27 .019
Age 18-25 (n = 54) 11.0 (2.2) 10.0 (5.8-15.3) −0.20 .055
  26-39 (n = 328) 12.6 (2.0) 12.0 (7.0-19.0) Reference  
  40+ (n = 18) 12.0 (1.6) 12.0 (6.2-15.0) −0.08 .632
Mode of birth Vaginal spontaneous (n = 175) 12.0 (2.1) 12.0 (7.0-18.0) Reference  
  Vaginal assisted (n = 87) 12.4 (1.9) 12.0 (5.0-18.0) 0.07 .481
  Caesarian without labour (n = 59) 13.6 (1.9) 13.0 (5.0-18.0) 0.15 .153
  Caesarian after a period of labour (n = 79) 12.3 (2.1) 13.0 (4.0-21.0) 0.05 .580
Unexpected pregnancy No (n = 305) 12.0 (2.0) 12.0 (7.0-18.0) Reference  
  Yes (n = 95) 13.6 (2.0) 13.0 (8.0-13.0) 0.12 .135
Self-rating of health Fair to good (n = 64) 18.1 (2.0) 17.5 (10.3-27.8) Reference  
  Very good to extremely good (n = 335) 11.5 (2.0) 11.0 (7.0-17.0)_ −0.45 .000
Missing (n = 1)
Feeding method Breast milk only (n = 267) 11.8 (2.0) 11.0 (7.0-18.0) Reference  
  Formula only or with breast milk (n = 118) 13.8 (2.2) 14.0 (8.8-23) 0.16 .042
Missing (n = 15)
Baby crying/fussing <3 h (n = 293) 11.4 (2.1) 11.0 (6.0-17.0) Reference  
  ≥3 h (n = 107) 15.3 (1.8) 14.0 9.0 (14.0-21.0) .027 .001
Psychiatric history No (n = 302) 11.4 (2.0) 11.0 (7.0-17.0) 0.29 .000
Yes (n = 98) 16.1 (2.0) 15.0 (9.0-23.3)
    Correlation with the Demoralisation Scale: r (p)   
Confidence in going home from hospital    -.39 (p = .000) −0.25 .000
IBM care subscalea    .22 (p = .000) .018 .000
IBM control subscaleb    .24 (p = .000) .021 .000
  1. The dependent variable, the Demoralisation Scale total score, has been natural log transformed in the regression analysis
  2. aReflected and natural log transformed in the regression analysis
  3. bNatural log transformed in the regression analysis