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Table 1 Crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for fear of childbirth (W-DEQ score ≥85) among 1789 pregnant Norwegian women

From: Fear of childbirth and elective caesarean section: a population-based study

  Fear of childbirth (W-DEQ)   
Low score (<85) High score (≥85) Total P Crude OR Adjusted OR
n (%) n (%) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Social support
 Strong 703 (97.0) 22 (3.0) 725 (100) <0.001 1.0 1.0
 Moderate 810 (90.5) 85 (9.5) 895 (100)   3.4 (2.1–5.4)*** 3.1 (1.9–5.0)***
 Poor 142 (84.0) 27 (16.0) 169 (100)   6.1 (3.4–11.0)*** 3.8 (1.9–7.6)***
Educational level (years)
 ≤ 12 1137 (92.1) 98 (7.9) 1235 (100) 0.286 1.0 1.0
 > 12 518 (93.5) 36 (6.5) 554 (100)   1.2 (0.8–1.8) 2.1 (1.3–3.3)***
Sexual abuse
 No 1390 (93.3) 100 (6.7) 1490 (100) 0.018 1.0 1.0
 Coerced 188 (89.1) 23 (10.9) 211 (100)   1.7 (1.1–2.7)* 1.2 (0.7–2.0)
 Forced 77 (87.5) 11 (12.5) 88 (100)   2.0 (1.0–3.9)* 0.9 (0.4–2.0)
Mental health
 No mental impairment 1498 (94.5) 87 (5.5) 1585 (100) <0.001 1.0 1.0
 Anxiety or depression 108 (82.4) 23 (17.6) 131 (100)   3.7 (2.2–6.0) *** 3.0 (1.7–5.1)***
 Both anxiety and depression 49 (67.1) 24 (32.9) 73 (100)   8.4 (4.9–14.4)*** 6.1 (3.3–11.2)***
Medical risk factors
 None 1319 (92.8) 103 (7.2) 1422 (100) 0.715 1.0 1.0
 One 287 (91.7) 26 (8.3) 313 (100)   1.2 (0.7–1.8) 1.1 (0.7–1.8)
 Two or more 49 (90.7) 5 (9.3) 54 (100)   1.3 (0.5–3.4) 1.2 (0.4–3.6)
Previous overall birth experience
 Good 808 (95.6) 37 (4.4) 845 (100) <0.001 1.0 1.0
 Bad 52 (72.2) 20 (27.8) 72 (100)   8.4 (4.6–15.5)*** 7.6 (3.8–15.2)***
 No previous delivery experience 795 (91.2) 77 (8.8) 872 (100)   2.1 (1.4–3.2)*** 2.3 (1.5–3.5)***
  1. The following variables were also included in the logistic regression analyses, but not significantly associated with fear of childbirth and therefore not included in the table; age of the woman and marital status. *Statistically significant at 0.05 level, *** at 0.001 level. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval