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Table 1 Socio-demographic and pre-pregnancy health related predictors of alcohol consumption among pregnancies in Northern Tanzania

From: Alcohol consumption among pregnant women in Northern Tanzania 2000–2010: a registry-based study

  % of pregnancies Mothers who drank alcohol during the pregnancy
% drinking alcohol Univariate analysis Multivariable model(a)
Variables    RR (95 % CI) p-value ARR (95 % CI) p-value
Total (n = 33006)(b) 100.0 34.1     
Mother's age in years (n = 32985)     < 0.001   0.001
 17 or younger 2.6 17.4 0.41 (0.35 – 0.48)   0.83 (0.66 – 1.03)  
 18 – 25 38.9 28.3 0.67 (0.64 – 0.70)   0.93 (0.86 – 1.00)  
 26 – 35 48.2 37.9 0.89 (0.85 – 0.93)   1.02 (0.97 – 1.08)  
 36 or older 10.3 42.5 1.00   1.00  
Number of previous pregnancies (n = 32029)     < 0.001   < 0.001
 0 37.0 26.7 0.65 (0.62 – 0.68)   0.82 (0.77 – 0.87)  
 1 26.4 36.2 0.88 (0.84 – 0.92)   1.00 (0.95 – 1.05)  
 2 17.3 41.8 1.02 (0.97 – 1.06)   1.09 (1.04 – 1.15)  
 3 or more 19.3 41.1 1.00   1.00  
Mother's tribe (n = 32961)     < 0.001   < 0.001
 Chagga 55.8 45.2 2.07 (1.99 – 2.16)   1.34 (1.27 – 1.41)  
 Pare 12.6 17.3 0.79 (0.74 – 0.86)   0.92 (0.84 – 1.01)  
 Maasai 1.0 6.6 0.31 (0.21 – 0.45)   0.88 (0.57 – 1.35)  
 Other 30.6 21.8 1.00   1.00  
Mother's religion (n = 32783)     < 0.001   < 0.001
 Catholic 38.6 53.6 3.62 (3.41 – 3.84)   2.91 (2.69 – 3.14)  
 Protestant 40.0 25.9 1.75 (1.64 – 1.87)   1.59 (1.47 – 1.72)  
 Muslim 21.4 14.8 1.00   1.00  
Mother's Body Mass Index before pregnancy (n = 25417)     < 0.001   < 0.001
 < 18.5 Underweight 5.2 23.8 0.58 (0.50 – 0.67)   0.71 (0.62 - 0.82)  
 18.5 – 24.9 Normal weight 56.8 33.7 0.82 (0.73 – 0.91)   0.86 (0.77 - 0.96)  
 25.0 – 29.9 Overweight 26.9 41.5 1.01 (0.90 – 1.13)   0.95 (0.85 - 1.06)  
 30.0 – 34.9 Obese Class 1 (Moderately Obese) 9.3 44.3 1.07 (0.95 – 1.21)   0.97 (0.87 - 1.09)  
 ≥ 35.0 Obese Class 2 (Severely Obese) 1.8 41.3 1.00   1.00  
Mother's height (n = 29314)     < 0.001   0.001
 < 150 cm 5.5 26.7 0.67 (0.60 – 0.73)   0.81 (0.73 – 0.90)  
 150 – 159 cm 41.3 33.8 0.84 (0.79 – 0.89)   0.92 (0.86 – 0.97)  
 160 – 169 cm 45.9 36.8 0.92 (0.87 – 0.97)   0.91 (0.86 – 0.97)  
 ≥170 cm 7.3 40.2 1.00   1.00  
Current residence (n = 32913)     < 0.001   0.001
 Urban area 52.2 34.4 1.00 (0.97 – 1.04)   1.07 (1.03 – 1.11)  
 Semiurban area 4.8 28.5 0.83 (0.77 – 0.90)   1.01 (0.92 – 1.11)  
 Rural area 43.0 34.3 1.00   1.00  
HIV status (n = 33006)     < 0.001   < 0.001
 Negative 59.4 28.9 0.69 (0.67 – 0.71)   0.91 (0.87 – 0.95)  
 Positive 3.9 39.3 0.94 (0.87 – 1.00)   1.11 (1.01 – 1.21)  
 Unknown 36.7 42.0 1.00   1.00  
Father's age (n = 32745)     < 0.001   < 0.001
 25 or younger 15.1 25.7 0.60 (0.56 – 0.65)   0.82 (0.74 – 0.91)  
 26 – 35 55.2 33.0 0.77 (0.73 – 0.83)   0.85 (0.79 – 0.92)  
 36 – 45 25.6 40.5 0.95 (0.89 – 1.02)   0.93 (0.86 – 1.00)  
 46 or older 4.2 42.6 1.00   1.00  
Father's tribe (n = 32835)     < 0.001   < 0.001
 Chagga 50.3 45.3 1.85 (1.79 – 1.92)   1.24 (1.19 – 1.30)  
 Pare 12.5 19.2 0.78 (0.73 – 0.84)   0.94 (0.87 – 1.03)  
 Maasai 1.4 13.6 0.56 (0.44 – 0.70)   1.00 (0.78 – 1.30)  
 Other 35.8 24.5 1.00   1.00  
Year (n = 33006)     < 0.001   < 0.001
 2000 4.8 49.5 2.30 (2.12 – 2.49)   1.88 (1.68 – 2.11)  
 2001 10.1 44.7 2.08 (1.93 – 2.24)   1.86 (1.68 – 2.07)  
 2002 9.1 44.9 2.09 (1.94 – 2.25)   1.86 (1.68 – 2.07)  
 2003 8.1 44.2 2.06 (1.90 – 2.22)   1.72 (1.55 – 1.91)  
 2004 8.5 39.1 1.82 (1.68 – 1.97)   1.58 (1.42 – 1.76)  
 2005 8.6 34.9 1.62 (1.49 – 1.76)   1.49 (1.34 – 1.66)  
 2006 8.9 32.0 1.49 (1.37 – 1.62)   1.46 (1.31 – 1.62)  
 2007 9.8 28.5 1.33 (1.22 – 1.44)   1.25 (1.12 – 1.40)  
 2008 10.9 26.2 1.22 (1.12 – 1.33)   1.20 (1.08 – 1.34)  
 2009 10.8 23.3 1.08 (0.99 – 1.18)   1.02 (0.92 – 1.15)  
 2010 10.4 21.5 1.00   1.00  
  1. (a)In the multivariable analyses all predictors have been adjusted for mother's age, mother's occupation, mother's tribe, mother's religion, mother's body mass index, mother's height, previous pregnancies, mother's current residence, mother's childhood residence, father's age, father's tribe, year of delivery, drinking water source, boiling of drinking water, mother's age at marriage and mother's HIV-status
  2. (b) For all the predictors one data entry per pregnancy has been included