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Table 3 Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of SBA use (weighted n = 10,668 in Senegal), Senegal DHS 2010

From: The relationship of women’s status and empowerment with skilled birth attendant use in Senegal and Tanzania

  Model 1 unadjusted (bivariate) Model 2 adjusted Model 3 final adjusted
OR p CI OR p CI OR p CI
Independent variable (Ref. = Primary edu)          
 Women’s education No education 0.355 <.001 0.303 0.415 0.888 0.199 0.741 1.064 0.972 0.758 0.809 1.167
  Secondary or above 2.064 <.001 1.457 2.922 0.994 0.978 0.659 1.501 0.937 0.759 0.616 1.423
Control variables           
 Age at childbirth   1.003 0.439 0.995 1.011 1.029 <.001 1.018 1.041 1.017 0.012 1.004 1.031
 Household wealth (Ref. = Poorest)          
  Poorer 2.476 <.001 2.165 2.833 2.275 <.001 1.982 2.612 2.183 <.001 1.900 2.508
  Middle 6.927 <.001 5.927 8.097 4.547 <.001 3.84 5.384 4.273 <.001 3.604 5.067
  Richer 17.985 <.001 14.295 22.627 7.584 <.001 5.890 9.765 6.740 <.001 5.220 8.702
  Richest 52.422 <.001 36.208 75.896 18.721 <.001 12.88 27.22 15.978 <.001 10.944 23.327
 Parity (Ref. = 4th or more)          
  First birth 2.666 <.001 2.330 3.050 2.256 <.001 1.797 2.832 1.993 <.001 1.566 2.537
  Second or third 1.535 <.001 1.370 1.719 1.274 0.002 1.091 1.489 1.153 0.093 0.977 1.360
 Employment (Ref. = not employed) 1.095 0.115 0.978 1.225 0.788 <.001 0.694 0.894 0.797 <.001 0.703 0.904
 Household head (Ref. = not head) 1.693 <.001 1.261 2.274 1.166 0.367 0.835 1.627 1.154 0.409 0.821 1.624
 Urban residence (Ref. = rural) 10.066 <.001 8.594 11.790 3.032 <.001 2.526 3.640 2.854 <.001 2.377 3.426
 Marital relationship (Ref. = monogamous)          
  Polygamous as 1st wife 0.630 <.001 0.533 0.744 0.772 0.006 0.641 0.929 0.814 0.030 0.676 0.980
  2nd or lower 0.648 <.001 0.567 0.741 0.733 <.001 0.630 0.853 0.764 <.001 0.656 0.889
 Having son(s) (Ref. = no living son) 0.565 <.001 0.509 0.627 0.858 0.051 0.736 1.000 0.868 0.071 0.743 1.012
 Perceived difficulty in accessing health care 0.655 <.001 0.625 0.687 0.864 <.001 0.825 0.905 0.865 <.001 0.825 0.907
  (scored 0–4)          
Women’s empowerment proxy measures          
 Household decision-making power (0–3) 1.229 <.001 1.169 1.293     1.025 0.394 0.969 1.084
 Perception against violence (0–5) 1.306 <.001 1.271 1.342     1.091 <.001 1.059 1.124
 Perception for sex negotiation (0–2) 1.508 <.001 1.397 1.627     1.161 <.001 1.064 1.267
 Age at first marriage 1.131 <.001 1.115 1.146     1.027 0.002 1.010 1.044
Intercept (coefficient)      −1.267 <.001    −1.704 <.001   
Model statistics     
 LR (Chi-square)    3670.2785 3762.405
 Wald (Chi-square)    1303.6847 1325.9176
 DF    16 20
 p    <.001 <.001
  1. Model 1 (simple binary regression model) was assessed by each explanatory variable, and the model statistics of each model are not reported in the table. For the overall association, wald chi-square tests (from Type 3 Analysis of Effects) were assessed with education, wealth, parity, and marital relationship, showing significance at p < .001