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Table 5 Odds ratiosa of birth outcomes in relation to group (symptom-free (SF), nausea only (NP), and nausea and vomiting (NVP))

From: Pregnancy complications and birth outcomes among women experiencing nausea only or nausea and vomiting during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

  Crude Adjustedd
Outcome Group n (%)b cOR (95 % CI)c P value aOR (95 % CI) P value
Emergency SF 1220 (9.4) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 0.07
Caesarean delivery Preterm birth NP 1413 (7.6) 0.79 (0.73–0.86) 0.91 (0.84–0.99)
NVP 1302 (8.4) 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.97 (0.90–1.06)
  SF 751 (5.4) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 0.02
  NP 879 (4.4) 0.81 (0.73–0.89) 0.86 (0.78–0.96)
  NVP 800 (4.8) 0.88 (0.80–0.98) 0.91 (0.82–1.01)
Birth type (other presentations than normal cephalic) SF 1372 (10.3) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 0.001
NP 1780 (9.3) 0.89 (0.82–0.96) 0.97 (0.90–1.04)
NVP 1363 (8.5) 0.81 (0.75–0.87) 0.87 (0.80–0.94)
Apgar score after 5 min (<7)e  
Male infants SF 124 (1.6) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 0.006
  NP 93 (0.9) 0.56 (0.43–0.73)   0.65 (0.49–0.85)
  NVP 90 (1.1) 0.69 (0.53–0.90)   0.75 (0.57–0.99)
Female infants SF 68 (1.1) 1.00 <0.05 1.00 0.03
  NP 120 (1.2) 1.13 (0.84–1.52) 1.26 (0.93–1.70)
  NVP 74 (0.9) 0.78 (0.56–1.09) 0.85 (0.61–1.19)
Low birth weight SF 339 (2.5) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 0.001
  NP 326 (1.7) 0.66 (0.57–0.77) 0.73 (0.60–0.88)f
  NVP 305 (1.9) 0.74 (0.64–0.87) 0.72 (0.60–0.88)f
Small for gestational age SF 1657 (12.0) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
(SGA) NP 1908 (9.6) 0.78 (0.73–0.84)   0.78 (0.73–0.84)g
  NVP 1694 (10.2) 0.84 (0.78–0.90)   0.87 (0.81–0.93)g
Birth defects SF 674 (4.9) 1.00 0.24 1.00 0.15
  NP 1022 (5.1) 1.06 (0.96–1.17)   1.10 (1.00–1.22)  
  NVP 791 (4.8) 0.98 (0.88–1.09)   1.03 (0.93–1.15)  
Gender of infant SF 6212 (45.0) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
(female) NP 9736 (49.0) 1.18 (1.13–1.23) 1.18 (1.13–1.23)h
  NVP 8625 (52.1) 1.33 (1.27–1.39) 1.34 (1.28–1.40)h
  1. aOR, odds ratio, logistic regression analysis
  2. bNumber (%) of women with outcome
  3. cCI, confidence interval
  4. dAdjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking during pregnancy, parity, education, and gender
  5. eSignificant interaction between Apgar score after 5 min (<7) and gender of infant (P = 0.001)
  6. fAdjusted for age, BMI, smoking during pregnancy, parity, education, gender, gestational length, and energy intake
  7. gAdjusted for age, BMI, smoking during pregnancy, education, and gender
  8. hAdjusted for age, BMI, smoking during pregnancy, parity, and education