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Table 2 Bivariate associations between the perceived quality of interpersonal relations and the explanatory variables

From: How do Malawian women rate the quality of maternal and newborn care? Experiences and perceptions of women in the central and southern regions

Variable ANC (N = 388) Delivery (N = 203) PNC (N = 230)
N Mean p-value N Mean p-value N Mean p-value
Age    0.128    0.609    0.970
<20 91 8.84   41 8.95   47 8.97  
20-29 205 9.07   118 9.02   132 8.94  
≥30 92 9.14   44 9.17   51 8.91  
Marital status    0.951    0.425    0.906
Unmarried 9 9.01   14 9.26   13 8.98  
Married 379 9.03   189 9.03   217 8.94  
Religion    0.918    0.615    0.499
Non-Christian 55 9.05   25 8.94   48 9.04  
Christian 333 9.03   178 9.06   182 8.91  
Literacy    0.002    0.249    0.391
Illiterate 131 8.80   69 8.92   89 8.85  
Literate 257 9.15   134 9.10   141 8.99  
Wealth    0.118    0.379    0.662
1 (poorest) 98 8.91   51 8.93   58 8.77  
2 97 8.99   54 9.17   57 8.99  
3 96 9.26   48 9.17   58 8.95  
4 (wealthiest) 97 8.98   50 8.89   57 9.04  
Parity    0.471    0.967    0.879
1 121 8.97   66 9.07   76 8.97  
2 to 3 135 9.00   74 9.02   86 8.96  
>3 132 9.13   63 9.04   68 8.88  
Number of children    0.228    0.859    0.526
No child 137 8.91   NA NA     
1-3 children 189 9.09   149 9.03   178 8.97  
>3 children 62 9.14   54 9.06   52 8.84  
Miscarriage    0.229    0.460    0.378
No miscarriage 333 9.06   180 9.02   198 8.97  
Had miscarriage 55 8.87   23 9.20   32 8.76  
Still birth    0.560    0.368    0.857
No stillbirth 371 9.04   197 9.05   221 8.94  
Had stillbirth 17 8.88   6 8.66   9 8.87  
Premature birth    0.947    0.920    0.164
No premature birth 365 9.03   191 9.04   215 8.91  
Had premature birth 23 9.05   12 9.07   15 9.36  
Number of current ANC visit    0.048    NA    NA
First visit 181 9.15   NA NA   NA NA  
>1 visit 207 8.93   NA NA   NA NA  
Method of delivery    NA    0.046    NA
Vaginal NA NA   190 9.07   NA NA  
C-section NA NA   7 8.06   NA NA  
Vacuum/forceps NA NA   4 9.10   NA NA  
Number of ANC visits, delivery    NA    0.084    NA
0-3 ANC visits NA NA   122 9.14   NA NA  
>3 ANC visits NA NA   80 8.88   NA NA  
Length of stay before delivery    NA    0.149    NA
0-2 days NA NA   170 9.07   NA NA  
≥2 days NA NA   33 9.03   NA NA  
Length of stay after delivery    NA    0.290    NA
0-1 day NA NA   120 8.99   NA NA  
≥2 days NA NA   83 9.29   NA NA  
Mode of transportation    0.043    0.798    0.177
Walking 232 8.94   66 8.98   154 9.01  
Motorized 156 9.17   137 9.14   76 8.78  
Wait time    0.613    0.143    0.902
≤1 hour 298 9.05   181 9.08   179 8.93  
>1 hour 90 8.98   22 8.73   51 8.96  
Self introduction by provider    0.003    0.176    <0.001
Not done 231 8.90   142 8.98   129 8.70  
Done 157 9.23   61 9.20   101 9.24  
Explanation of exam procedures (ANC, n = 380; Delivery, n = 121; PNC, n = 168)    0.003    0.991    0.029
Not explained 95 8.74   13 9.09   55 8.55  
Explained 285 9.13   108 9.08   113 9.01  
Explanation of medicine purpose & how to take (ANC, n = 366; Delivery, n = 167; PNC, n = 108)    0.009    0.273    0.014
Not explained 63 8.71   61 8.89   22 8.23  
Explained 303 9.12   106 9.06   86 9.05  
Explanation of blood specimen purpose (ANC, n = 267; Delivery, n = 85; PNC, n = 53)    0.012    0.098    0.001
Not explained 20 8.35   23 8.59   6 7.47  
Explained 247 9.04   62 9.10   47 8.60  
Consent seeking (ANC, n = 384; Delivery, n = 201; PNC, n = 183)    0.001    0.153    0.051
Not Sought 104 8.72   82 8.90   63 8.66  
Sought 280 9.15   119 9.12   120 9.03  
Encouragement to ask questions    <0.001    0.018    0.096
Not encouraged 143 8.76   123 8.90   107 8.80  
Encouraged 245 9.19   80 9.26   123 9.06  
Encouragement to have a guardian    0.596    0.007    0.096
Not encouraged . 9.00   101 8.84   130 8.82  
Encouraged 208 9.06   102 9.24   100 9.09  
Confidentiality    0.001    0.016    0.105
Not Kept 24 8.33   17 8.45   30 9.27  
Kept 364 9.08   186 9.10   200 8.89  
Bp measurement ANC & PNC    0.027    NA    0.982
Not taken 147 8.88   NA NA   133 8.94  
Taken 241 9.13   NA NA   97 8.94  
Bp measurement before delivery    NA    0.927    NA
Not taken NA .   76 9.05   NA NA  
Taken NA NA   127 9.04   NA NA  
Bp measurement after delivery    NA    0.156    NA
Not taken NA NA   113 9.13   NA NA  
Taken NA NA   87 8.92   NA NA  
Baby Weight taken    NA    NA    0.248
Not taken NA NA   NA NA   52 9.11  
Taken NA NA   NA NA   178 8.89  
  1. NA in all field of a cell means that this variable does not apply for the respective service