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Table 1 Explanatory variables and their distribution in the sample

From: How do Malawian women rate the quality of maternal and newborn care? Experiences and perceptions of women in the central and southern regions

Variable ANC (N = 388) Delivery (N = 230) PNC (N = 230)
  N % N % N %
Woman's age       
<20 91 23.45 41 20.2 47 20.43
20-29 205 52.84 118 58.13 132 57.39
≥30 92 23.71 44 21.67 51 22.17
Woman's marital status       
Unmarried 9 2.32 14 6.9 13 5.65
Married 379 97.68 189 93.1 217 94.35
Woman's religion       
Non-Christian 35 14.18 25 12.32 48 20.87
Christian 335 85.82 178 87.68 182 79.13
Woman's literacy       
Illiterate 131 33.76 69 33.99 89 38.7
Literate 257 66.24 134 66.01 141 61.3
Woman's wealth       
1-Poorest 98 25.26 51 25.12 58 25.22
2 97 25 54 26.6 57 24.78
3 96 24.74 48 23.65 58 25.22
4-Least poor 97 25 50 24.63 57 24.78
Parity       
1 121 31.19 66 32.51 76 33.04
2-3 135 34.79 74 36.45 86 37.39
>3 132 34.02 63 31.03 68 29.57
Number of children       
No child 137 35.31 0 0 0 0
1-3 children 189 48.71 149 73.4 178 77.39
>3 children 62 15.98 54 26.6 52 22.61
History of miscarriage       
No miscarriage 333 85.82 180 88.67 198 86.09
Had miscarriage 55 14.18 23 11.33 32 13.91
History of still birth       
No stillbirth 371 95.62 197 97.04 221 96.09
Had still birth 17 4.38 6 2.96 9 3.91
History of Premature birth       
No premature birth 365 94.07 191 94.09 215 93.48
Had premature birth 23 5.93 12 5.91 15 6.52
Number of ANC visits       
First visit 181 46.65 NA NA NA NA
>1 visit 207 53.35 NA NA NA NA
Method of delivery       
Vaginal NA NA 190 94.53 NA NA
C-section NA NA 7 3.48 NA NA
Vacuum/forceps NA NA 4 1.99 NA NA
Number of ANC visits at delivery       
0-3 ANC visits NA NA 122 60.4 NA NA
>3 ANC visits NA NA 80 39.6 NA NA
Length of stay before delivery       
0-2 days NA NA 170 83.74 NA NA
≥2 days NA NA 33 16.26 NA NA
Length of stay after delivery       
0-1 day NA NA 120 59.11 NA NA
≥1 day NA NA 83 40.89 NA NA
Mode of transportation       
Walked 232 59.79 66 32.51 154 66.96
Motorized transportation 156 40.21 137 67.49 76 33.04
Wait time       
≤1 hour 298 76.8 181 89.16 179 77.83
>1 hour 90 23.2 22 10.84 51 22.17
Self introduction by HW       
Not done 231 59.54 142 69.95 129 56.09
Done 157 40.46 61 30.05 101 43.91
Explanation of exam procedures (ANC, n = 380; Delivery, n = 121; PNC, n = 168)       
Not explained 95 25.00 13 10.74 55 32.74
Explained 285 75.00 108 89.26 113 67.26
Explanation of medicine purpose & how to take (ANC, n = 366; Delivery, n = 167; PNC, n = 108)       
Not explained 63 17.21 61 36.53 22 20.37
Explained 303 82.79 106 63.47 86 79.63
Explanation of blood specimen purpose (ANC, n = 267; Delivery, n = 85; PNC, n = 53)       
Not explained 20 7.49 23 27.06 6 11.32
Explained 247 92.51 62 72.94 47 88.68
Consent seeking (ANC, n = 384; Delivery, n = 201; PNC, n = 183)       
Not sought 104 27.08 82 40.8 63 34.43
Sought 280 72.92 119 59.2 120 65.57
Encouragement to ask questions       
Not encouraged 143 36.86 123 60.59 100 43.48
Encouraged 245 63.14 80 39.41 130 56.52
Encouraged to have a guardian       
Not encouraged 180 46.39 101 49.75 107 46.52
Encouraged 208 53.61 102 50.25 123 53.48
Confidentiality       
Not kept 24 6.19 17 8.37 30 13.04
Kept 364 93.81 186 91.63 200 86.96
Bp measurement ANC & PNC       
Not taken 147 37.89 NA NA 133 57.83
Taken 241 62.11 NA NA 97 42.17
Bp measurement before delivery       
Not taken NA NA 76 37.44 NA NA
Taken NA NA 127 62.56 NA NA
Bp measurement after delivery       
Not taken NA NA 116 57.15 NA NA
Taken NA NA 87 42.86 NA NA
Baby weight measurement       
Not taken NA NA NA NA 52 22.61
Taken NA NA NA NA 178 77.39
  1. NA in all field of a cell means that this variable does not apply for the respective service