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Table 2 Comparison of marital, social and psychological risk factors between women with and without postpartum depression

From: Sociodemographic and clinical features of postpartum depression among Turkish women: a prospective study

  PPD group (EPDS ≥ 13) No PPD (EPDS < 13) t/ χ 2 Value P value Relative Risk Odds ratio CI
Prenatal depression Score a 11.97 (4,98) 9.64 (4.70) −3.57 0,000* 1,70 0,99-2,90
Satisfaction level about the pregnancy period b 2.28(1.24) 2.81(1.17) 3.80 0.000* 0,69 0,57-0,84
Suicidal Thoughts in Pregnancy       
Yes 6 (54.5) 5 (45.5) 13.13 0,003* 6.99 2.08-23.49
No 77 (14.6) 449 (85.4)     
Hyperemesis n (%)       
Yes 5 (10.4) 43(89.6) 0,43 0.32 0,62 0.23-1.60
No 75(15.9) 397(84.1)     
Planned pregnancy n (%)       
Yes 60 (14) 370 (86) 3,72 0.05* 1,69 0.98-2.88
No 23 (21.5) 84 (78.5)     
Anomaly in Newborn n (%)       
Yes 2 (13.3) 13 (86.7) 0,04 0,83 0,85 0,19-3,85
No 80 (15.3) 444 (84.7)     
Satisfaction with the gender n (%)       
Yes 57 (14.7) 348 (85.9) 1,23 0.26 1,37 0.78-2.40
No 20 (18.3) 220 (84.9)     
Violence in pregnancy n (%)       
Yes 10 (50) 10 (50) 19,46 0.001* 6.20 2.49-15.45
No 71 (13.9) 441 (86.1)     
Postpartum Violence n (%)       
Yes 7 (50) 7 (50) 13,08 0.001* 5.87 2.00-17.20
No 76 (14.6) 446 (85.4)     
Past PPD History       
Yes 6 (54.5) 5(46.5) 13,41 0.001* 6.64 2.11-20.81
No 39 (14.4) 222 (85.6)     
Past Psychiatric History       
Yes 9(39.1) 14 (60.9) 11,63 0.001* 4.16 1.72-10.05
No 75 (15.9) 389 (86.6)     
PMS History       
Yes 39(21.1) 144 (78.7) 8,56 0.003* 2.05 1.25-3.33
No 39 (11.7) 295 (88.3)     
Infant Death       
Alive 82(15.4) 451(86.1) 0,706 0.70 0,917 0.109-7.71
Death 1(14.3) 6(85.7)     
Breast Feeding       
Yes 78 (15) 442 (85) 0,090 0,48 1.21 0,34-4,32
No 3 (17.6) 14 (82.4)     
  1. aAs measured by Hospital Depression Scale; bin a Likert type scale; 1- ‘not satisfied at all’ to 5- ‘very satisfied’ *: statistically significant p < 0.05. Abbreviations: CI Confidence Interval, PPD Postpartum depression, SD Standard Deviation, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.