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Table 1 Demographics of the patients with fore-lying or prolapse of the umbilical cord among the singleton vertex cases

From: The use of balloons for uterine cervical ripening is associated with an increased risk of umbilical cord prolapse: population based questionnaire survey in Japan

  Controls n = 88 Case used balloon n = 93 p-value
Maternal    
 Age 32.3 ± 5.0 31.9 ± 5.3 0.66
 Gravida 0.5 (0–4) 0 (0-1) 0.49
 Parity 1 (0–4) 0 (0–3) 0.50
 Height (cm) 158.0 ± 5.8 156.8 ± 5.5 0.30
 Weight at delivery (kg 63.2 ± 9.4 63.3 ± 10.3 0.98
Neonatal    
 Gestational weeks 37.2 ± 4.6 38.9 ± 1.9 <0.01
 Birth weight (g) 2677 ± 805 2677 ± 805 0.07
 Apgar score 1 min. 6 (0–10) 8 (0-9) 0.50
      5 min. 9 (0–10) 9 (0-10) 0.62
 Umbilical artery pH 7.23 ± 0.15 7.21 ± 0.14 0.37
 Base Excess −7.0 ± 6.4 −6.4 ± 4.6 0.68
 Intrauterine fetal death 4.5% (4) 2.2% (2) 0.43
Other risk factor of umbilical cord prolapse    
 Low-lying placenta 0% (0) 0% (0) 1.00
 Abnormal placental insertion 9.1% (8) 3.2% (3) 0.13
 Polyhydroamnios 4.5% (4) 2.2% (2) 0.43
 Oligohydramnios 0% (0) 2.2% (2) 0.50
Diagnosis    
 Fore-lying 10.2% (9) 15.1% (14) 0.38
 Prolapse    
   at spontaneous ROM 29.5% (26) 40.9% (38) 0.16
   at amniotomy 28.4% (25) 19.4% (18) 0.22
   after a while ROM 31.8% (28) 24.7% (23) 0.32
  1. The data indicate the mean ± standard deviation, median (range) or frequency (number of cases). ROM; rupture of membrane.