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Table 3 Comparison of delivery mode and indication for cesarean delivery

From: Cross sectional study in China: fetal gender has adverse perinatal outcomes in mainland China

  Males (n = 60028) Females (n = 49694) Ratio P
n (%) n (%)
Spontaneous delivery 26239 (43.7%) 22878 (46.0%) 1.15 <0.001
Operative vaginal deliverya 760 (1.3%) 534 (1.1%) 1.42 <0.01
Cesarean delivery 33029 (55.0%) 26282 (52.9%) 1.26 <0.001
Maternal request 10243 (17.1%) 8263 (16.6%) 1.24 0.05
Cephalopelvic disproportion/Failure to progress 6032 (10.0%) 4591 (9.2%) 1.31 <0.001
Fetal distress 4130 (6.9%) 3400 (6.8%) 1.21 0.80
Previous uterine surgery 3545 (5.9%) 2689 (5.4%) 1.32 <0.001
Malpresentation 1710 (2.8%) 1742 (3.5%) 0.98 <0.001
Suspected macrosomia 2227 (3.7%) 1188 (2.4%) 1.87 <0.001
Oligohydrammios 1203 (2.0%) 981 (2.0%) 1.23 0.72
Preeclampsia/eclampsia 1105 (1.8%) 1011 (2.0%) 1.09 <0.05
Later pregnancy bleeding 823 (1.4%) 727 (1.5%) 1.13 0.20
  1. aOperative vaginal delivery includes forceps delivery, vacuum extraction delivery and breech extraction.