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Table 10 Summary of evidence grading for all interventions during the intrapartum period to prevent stillbirth and perinatal mortality reviewed in this paper

From: Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

  Evidence of no or negative impact
(leave out of programmes)
Uncertain evidence
(need for additional research before including in programmes)
Some evidence
(may include in programmes, but further evaluation is warranted)
Clear evidence
(merits inclusion in programmes)
Instrumental delivery (vacuum vs. forceps)    X
(neither method superior, but either or both should be in programs)
Comprehensive emergency obstetric care packages, including Caesarean section     X
Induction of labour (vs. expectant management)     X
(for post-term pregnancy only)
Drugs for cervical ripening and induction of labour   X   
Planned Caesarean for breech presentation    X
(attendant risks in low-resource settings with poor EOC access)
Maternal hyperoxygenation for impaired fetal growth   X
(some evidence but biodynamics poorly understood)
Amnioinfusion   X   
Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and pre-term labour   X