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Table 6 Impact of smokeless tobacco on stillbirths and perinatal mortality

From: Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

Source Location, Type of Study Intervention Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes
Observational studies
Gupta and Subramoney 2006 [47] India. Population-based.
Cohort study. N = 1110 pregnant women.
Compared the impact on stillbirths of women using smokeless tobacco (exposed) vs. non-users (unexposed). SBR: adj. HR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.8).
[18/202 (8.9%) vs. 28/908 (3.1%) among exposed and unexposed groups, respectively].
Krishna 1978 [48] India (Pune). Hospital-based.
Cross-sectional study. N = 1388 singleton births.
Analyzed the impact on stillbirths of pregnant women who were tobacco chewers vs. non-users. SBR: 3 times higher risk among tobacco users vs. controls.
Shah et al. 2000 [49] India. Multicentre, hospital-based.
Case-control study.
Compared the impact on perinatal mortality of women using tobacco vs. non-users. PMR: 1.5 times higher risk (95% CI: 1.3 – 1.7).