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Table 5 Impact of smoking cessation on stillbirth and perinatal mortality

From: Reducing stillbirths: behavioural and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy

Source Location and Type of Study Intervention/Study objectives Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes
Reviews and meta-analyses
Lumley et al. 2004 [33] UK, Ireland, USA.
Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 6 RCTs included.
To assess the effects of smoking cessation programs implemented during pregnancy (intervention) vs. standard care/no program (controls). SBR: RR = 1.16 [NS] [data from 5 RCTs; 35/2261 vs. 30/2264 in intervention and control groups, respectively].
PMR: RR = 1.13 [NS] [data from 3 RCTs; 41/2149 vs. 36/2186 in intervention and control groups, respectively].
Observational studies
Chun-Fai-Chan et al. 2005 [43] UK.
Prospective cohort study. N = 269; N = 136 bupropion treatment vs. nonteratogen (N = 133) treatment.
To assess the impact of bupropion compared with a nonteratogenic smoking cessation aid on stillbirth rate. SBR: 1/136 vs. 0/133 in bupropion vs. nonteratogen groups, respectively [NS].
Strandberg-Larsen et al. 2008 [45] Denmark. Danish National Birth Cohort.
Prospective cohort study. N = 87, 032 singleton pregnancies (N = 1927 NRT users, 85,105 non-users)
Compared the impact on stillbirths of NRT use during pregnancy (exposed) vs. non-users (unexposed). SBR: crude HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.37–1.15) [NS].
[4.2/1000 vs. 5.7/1000 births among NRT users vs. non-users, respectively].