|Source||Location and Type of Study||Intervention/Study objectives||Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes|
|Reviews and meta-analyses|
|Lumley et al. 2004 ||
UK, Ireland, USA.|
Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 6 RCTs included.
|To assess the effects of smoking cessation programs implemented during pregnancy (intervention) vs. standard care/no program (controls).||
SBR: RR = 1.16 [NS] [data from 5 RCTs; 35/2261 vs. 30/2264 in intervention and control groups, respectively].|
PMR: RR = 1.13 [NS] [data from 3 RCTs; 41/2149 vs. 36/2186 in intervention and control groups, respectively].
|Chun-Fai-Chan et al. 2005 ||
Prospective cohort study. N = 269; N = 136 bupropion treatment vs. nonteratogen (N = 133) treatment.
|To assess the impact of bupropion compared with a nonteratogenic smoking cessation aid on stillbirth rate.||SBR: 1/136 vs. 0/133 in bupropion vs. nonteratogen groups, respectively [NS].|
|Strandberg-Larsen et al. 2008 ||
Denmark. Danish National Birth Cohort.|
Prospective cohort study. N = 87, 032 singleton pregnancies (N = 1927 NRT users, 85,105 non-users)
|Compared the impact on stillbirths of NRT use during pregnancy (exposed) vs. non-users (unexposed).||
SBR: crude HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.37–1.15) [NS].|
[4.2/1000 vs. 5.7/1000 births among NRT users vs. non-users, respectively].