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Table 4 Health outcomes for infants who were born by caesarean section (as percentage of caesarean born babies)

From: Caesarean section in four South East Asian countries: reasons for, rates, associated care practices and health outcomes

  Indonesia    Malaysia    The Philippines    Thailand    
  Overall Tertiary District Overall Tertiary 1 Tertiary 2 Overall Tertiary 1 Tertiary 2 Overall Regional University Provincial
  n = 628 n = 294 n = 334 n = 465 n = 272 n = 193 n = 479 n = 126 n = 353 n = 1074 n = 342 n = 342 n = 390
Stillbirth # 1.0 2.0 0.0 0.9 0.4 1.6 0.2 0.8 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.6 0.5
Babies born alive who died # 0.3 0.0 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.3 1.1 0.9 1.5 1.0
Total deaths # 1.3 2.0 0.6 1.3 0.7 2.1 0.6 1.6 0.3 1.5 0.9 2.0 1.5
Gestational age at birth (weeks) * 38.8 (2.2) 38.3 (2.7) 39.2 (1.4) 37.9 (2.0) 37.8 (2.2) 38.3 (1.7) 37.8 (2.1) 38.1 (1.5) 37.7 (2.2) 38.3 (2.2) 37.9 (2.3) 38.1 (2.3) 38.8 (2.0)
Gestational age at birth < 37 weeks 10 18 3 13 15 11 10 3 12 12 16 13 9
Birth weight (kg) * 2.97 (0.65) 2.87 (0.74) 3.01 (0.56) 3.02 (0.70) 3.0 (0.71) 3.05 (0.69) 2.8 (0.60) 2.89 (0.48) 2.76 (0.63) 3.06 (0.60) 3.0 (0.58) 3.1 (0.63) 3.13 (0.57)
very low birth weight (< 1500 g) 3 5 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 2 2 3 1
low birth weight (1500–2499 g) 16 20 13 15 15 15 21 15 24 10 16 8 7
normal (2500–4499 g) 77 70 83 74 74 75 75 85 71 84 79 86 87
macrosomia (≥ 4000 g) 5 5 4 8 7 8 1 0 1 4 4 3 5
Resuscitation 43 40 46 7 5 10 16 19 15 60 21 57 97
Apgar score < 7 at 1 min § 35 42 28 8 7 9 9 8 10 6 7 7 4
Apgar score < 7 at 5 min § 9 14 5 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 2
  1. Figures are percentage rounded to the nearest whole number, or #percentagerounded to one decimal point or *mean (standard deviation)
  2. §Calculated for live births only