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Table 2 Outcomes of both study groups until one year after delivery

From: Long-term effectiveness and costs of a brief self-management intervention in women with pregnancy-related low back pain after delivery

  Usual Care (3 months) N = 56 Mean (SD) Experimental Intervention (3 months) N = 58 Mean (SD) Usual Care (6 months) N = 49 Mean (SD) Experimental Intervention (6 months) N = 56 Mean (SD) Usual Care (One Year) N = 49 Mean (SD) Experimental Intervention (One year) N = 56 Mean (SD)
Primary outcomes       
RDQ (0–24) 6.8 (5.5) 4.5 (4.9) 4.9 (4.8) 4.5 (5.4) 3.4 (4.2) 3.5 (4.9)
MC (VAS) (0–100) 26.8 (21.0) 21.0 (21.9) 20.5 (21.8) 19.7 (21.5) 17.8 (18.8) 17.6 (20.5)
GPE*: n/% 37 (66.1) 43 (74.1) 37 (75.5) 46 (82.1) 41 (83.6) 46 (82.1)
GPE p-value 0.28 0.47 0.5
VAS (0–100) (pain today) 26.3 (19.9) 24.3 (24.1) 20.7 (20.6) 22.5 (23.5) 17.4 (19.9) 20.7 (23.1)
VAS (0–100) (pain this week) 29.6 (21.7) 25.3 (23.0) 22.3 (21.5) 23.2 (23.6) 18.5 (19.7) 23.7 (23.8)
Secondary outcomes       
IPA:       
Autonomy in self-care (0–28) 4.0 (4.6) 3.0 (4.3) 3.3 (4.2) 2.4 (4.1) 2.8 (3.5) 2.6 (4.0)
Mobility and leisure (0–20) 6.3 (4.0) 5.6 (4.4) 5.2 (3.8) 4.8 (4.4) 4.5 (3.4) 4.5 (4.6)
Family role (0–28) 9.2 (5.1) 7.8 (5.8) 7.5 (5.3) 6.6 (5.8) 5.8 (5.0) 6.0 (6.3)
Social relationships (0–24) 4.4 (2.9) 4.0 (3.3) 3.8 (2.9) 3.8 (3.5) 3.7 (2.8) 3.7 (3.2)
TSK:       
Total score (17–68) 32.4 (5.6) 28.6 (6.0) 32.3 (5.7) 28.6 (5.9) 31.0 (6.3) 28.7 (6.7)
Activity Avoidance (8–32) 16.2 (3.7) 13.5 (4.0) 15.7 (4.0) 13.3 (3.9) 14.8 (4.0) 13.3 (3.8)
Harm (5–20) 7.9 (2.4) 7.2 (2.3) 7.9 (2.6) 7.3 (2.4) 7.6 (2.5) 7.6 (2.4)
SF-36:       
General Health (0–100) 59.2 (13.7) 61.4 (14.0) 60.9 (13.8) 61.9 (13.0) 62.4 (13.9) 61.2 (16.2)
EuroQol (0–1) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) 0.79 (0.1) 0.75 (0.2)
  1. Ratings on a 7-point scale are dichotomized as improved (completely recovered and much improved) and not-improved (slightly improved, not changed and slightly/much/vastly worsened).
  2. results of binary logistic regression; p-value
  3. RDQ = Roland Disability Questionnaire, MC = Main Complaint, VAS = Visual Analog rating Scale, IPA = Impact on Participation and Autonomy, TSK = Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Fear Avoidance = subscale TSK consisting items 1,2, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17, Harm = subscale TSK consisting items 3, 5, 6, 11, SF 36 = Short Form 36