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Table 3 Factors associated with quality of antenatal care services in Nepal

From: Factors associated with the use and quality of antenatal care in Nepal: a population-based study using the demographic and health survey data

Study variables Total number of women Number of women who had good quality ANC (%) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P
Women’s age at birth of child (Mean, SD) 24.7 24.2 (4.86)     0.041
With each ten years increase in women's age Linear   0.82 (0.67 to 1.00) 0.045 1.46 (1.08 to 1.97) 0.013
Quadratic   0.72 (0.58 to 0.90) 0.004   
Women’s education     <0.001   0.057
No education 1372 179 (13.1) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Primary education 714 138 (19.3) 1.60 (1.16 to 2.20)   1.16 (0.81 to 1.68)  
Secondary education 1172 415 (35.4) 3.65 (2.64 to 5.05)   1.58 (1.09 to 2.28)  
Tertiary education 262 121 (46.2) 5.72 (3.79 to 8.62)   1.53 (0.97 to 2.41)  
Wealth quintile to which the women’s household belonged     <0.001   0.001
Poorest 657 55 (8.3) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Poorer 733 98 (13.3) 1.69 (1.11 to 2.57)   1.40 (0.90 to 2.19)  
Middle 792 169 (21.3) 2.98 (1.95 to 4.56)   1.90 (1.18 to 3.06)  
Richer 701 256 (36.6) 6.34 (4.12 to 9.73)   2.86 (1.74 to 4.71)  
Richest 637 276 (43.3) 8.40 (5.44 to 12.98)   2.88 (1.70 to 4.89)  
Whether women participated in at least one of the three decisions regarding their own health care, major household purchases and visit to their family or relatives     0.043 - -
No 2059 467 (22.7) 1 (Referent category)    
Yes 1461 386 (26.4) 1.22 (1.01 to 1.49)    
Whether women were exposed to any of the three general media (radio, television or newspaper/magazines) at least once a week     0.329 - -
Not exposed 1334 340 (14.6) 1 (Referent category)    
Exposed 2186 514 (9.7) 0.90 (0.72 to 1.12)    
Parity (Mean, SD) 2.4 1.9 (2.00)   <0.001   <.001
With each unit increase in live birth    0.69 (0.63 to 0.75)   0.79 (0.70 to 0.88)  
History of previous pregnancies     0.016 - -
No complications in previous
pregnancies
2978 750 (25.2) 1 (Referent category)    
Complications in previous pregnancies 542 104 (19.2) 0.71 (0.53 to 0.94)    
Use of modern family planning     0.044   0.045
No 2337 595 (25.5) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Yes 1183 258 (21,8) 0.82 (0.67 to 0.99)   0.79 (0.62 to 0.99)  
Ecological zones where women resided     0.001 - -
Terai 1956 551 (28.2) 1 (Referent category)    
Hill 1328 262 (19.7) 0.63 (0.45 to 0.87)    
Mountain 237 41 (17.3) 0.53 (0.36 to 0.78)    
Residence     <0.001   0.013
Rural 3128 722 (23.1) 1 (Referent category)    
Urban 392 132 (33.7) 1.69 (1.29 to 2.20)   1.52 (1.09 to .2.12)  
Place where women received antenatal care     <0.001   0.005
Government Hospital 605 210 (34.7) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Home 43 1 (2.8) 0.05 (0.01 to 0.39)   0.25 (0.03 to 2.08)  
Government PHC Centre 287 79 (27.6) 0.72 (0.46 to 1.11)   0.85 (0.52 to 1.37)  
Government Health Post 430 54 (12.6) 0.27 (0.18 to 0.41)   0.44 (0.28 to 0.68)  
Government Sub Health Post 877 88 (10.0) 0.21 (0.14 to 0.32)   0.67 (0.40 to 1.11)  
Government PHC Outreach 269 30 (11.1) 0.23 (0.11 to 0.48)   0.94 (0.50 to 1.77)  
Private Hospital/Clinic 860 322 (37.4) 1.12 (0.84 to 1.51)   0.85 (0.62 to 1.17)  
NGO 136 68 (49.8) 1.86 (1.15 to 3.01)   1.60 (1.02 to 2.52)  
Others 13 2 (12.7) 0.27 (0.07 to 1.03)   0.55 (0.10 to 3.07)  
Health worker who provided the women with antenatal care     <0.001   <0.001
Doctor 1115 462 (41.5) 1 (Referent category)   1 (Referent category)  
Female Community Health Volunteer 38 1 (1.5) 0.02 (0.00 to 0.10)   0.10 (0.01 to 0.62)  
Village Health Worker 56 1 (1.5) 0.02 (0.00 to 0.16)   0.04 (0.01 to 0.29)  
Maternal and Child Health Worker 534 25 (4.7) 0.07 (0.03 to 0.16)   0.16 (0.07 to 0.41)  
Health Assistant/Auxilliary Health Worker 475 35 (7.5) 0.11 (0.07 to 0.20)   0.25 (0.13 to 0.46)  
Nurse/Midwife 1301 329 (25.3) 0.48 (0.39 to 0.59)   0.74 (0.58 to 0.94)