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Table 1 Bivariate analysis of the factors associated with exclusive psychological violence

From: Psychological violence against pregnant women in a prenatal care cohort: rates and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil

  Exclusive psychological violence
Variables n % PR* 95 CI** p***
Level 1       
Age range of the pregnant women (years) (n = 1.243)       0.076
  25 or more 696 38.7 1    
  20 to 24 393 45.0 1.16 1.01 1.34  
  14 to 19 154 45.4 1.17 0.96 1.43  
Age range of the intimate partners (years, n = 1.001)       0.268
  25 or more 734 37.6 1    
  20 to 24 242 42.1 1.12 0.94 1.33  
  14 to 19 25 48.0 1.28 0.84 1.94  
Skin color of the pregnant women (n = 1.181)       0.024
  Crossbred 794 39.1 1    
  Black 195 43.0 1.10 0.92 1.32  
  White 171 46.7 1.19 0.99 1.43  
  Yellow/Oriental 21 61.9 1.58 1.12 2.23  
Schooling of the pregnant women (n = 1.243)       
  Elementary 148 39.1 1    0.157
  Middle 944 40.8 1.04 0.84 1.29  
  Higher 151 48.3 1.23 0.95 1.59  
Schooling of the residing intimate partner (n = 982)       0.499
  Higher 79 36.7 1    
  Middle 728 37.7 1.03 0.76 1.39  
  Elementary 175 42.2 1.15 0.82 1.61  
Remunerated job of the pregnant women (n = 1.243)       0.331
  No 643 40.2 1    
  Yes 600 43.0 0.94 0.82 1.07  
Family income in minimum wages (n = 1.209)       0.094
  <1 45 35.5 1    
  1 to <3 687 39.3 1.10 0.74 1.66  
  3 to <5 292 44.1 1.24 0.82 1.88  
  ≥5 185 48.1 1.35 0.89 2.06  
Brazilian economic class (n = 1.186)       0.549
  C 811 40.4 1    
  D/E 178 43.2 1.07 0.89 1.29  
  A/B 197 44.1 1.09 0.91 1.30  
Who is the family head (n = 1.239)       0.072
  Partner 746 39.0 1    
  Pregnant woman 129 44.1 1.13 0.91 1.40  
  Others 364 45.8 1.18 1.02 1.36  
Difference in schooling (n = 982)       0.050
  Pregnant woman < residing intimate partner 92 30.4 1    
  No difference 684 37.7 1.24 0.89 1.71  
  Pregnant woman > residing intimate partner 206 44.6 1.47 1.04 2.07  
Difference in occupation (n = 992)       0.923
  Pregnant woman < residing intimate partner 197 38.0 1    
  No difference 158 38.6 1.01 0.78 1.32  
  Pregnant woman > residing intimate partner 637 39.5 1.04 0.85 1.27  
Level 2       
Material dimension of social support <75th percentile (n = 1,243)       0.001
  No 378 34.3 1    
  Yes 865 44.7 1.30 1.11 1.52  
Positive affective/social interaction dimension of social support <75th percentile (n = 1.243)       <0.001
  No 351 31.9 1    
  Yes 892 45.4 1.42 1.20 1.68  
Emotional dimension/information of social support <75th percentile (n = 1.243)       0.001
  No 337 32.9 1    
  Yes 906 44.8 1.36 1.14 1.61  
Level 3       
Smoking during pregnancy (n = 1,243)       0.009
  No 1204 41.0 1    
  Yes 39 58.9 1.43 1.09 1.88  
Use of illicit drugs up to 3 months before the current pregnancy (n = 1,240)       0.003
  No 1224 41.3 1    
  Yes 16 68.7 1.66 1.19 2.33  
Alcohol abuse by the woman during pregnancy (n = 1,241)       0.013
  No 1129 40.5 1    
  Yes 112 51.7 1.28 1.05 1.55  
Number of sex partners (n = 1.231)       0.001
  1 370 36.7 1    
  2 to 5 734 41.2 1.12 0.96 1.32  
  6 or more 127 55.1 1.50 1.22 1.84  
  1. *Prevalence Ratio.
  2. **95% Confidence interval.
  3. ***P-value obtained by the likelihood ratio test based on the Poisson regression model.
  4. São Luís-Brazil, 2010/2011.