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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios with 95% Confidence intervals showing the association between education, income, residence and parity, and less than four antenatal visits and lack of skilled attendant among Ghanaian women 15–49 years from 1988 to 2008 presented in years intervals

From: Magnitude and trends of inequalities in antenatal care and delivery under skilled care among different socio-demographic groups in Ghana from 1988 – 2008

Variables Less than four antenatal visits Lack of skilled attendant at birth
  Adjusted* OR 95% CI Adjusted* OR (95% CI)
  1993 1998 2003 2008 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
Residence          
 Urban Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Rural 3.5 (2.7-4.5) 2.3 (1.7-3.1) 2.4 (1.7-3.2) 1.5 (1.1-2.1) 4.4 (3.4-5.8) 8.3 (6.4-10.6) 4.3 (3.3-5.6) 3.0 (2.4-3.9) 2.4 (1.9-3.2)
Highest educational level          
 No education 10.4 (4.7-23.2) 10.7 (4.4-25.7) 4.4 (2.0-9.4) 2.2 (1.2-4.4) 5.1 (2.9-9.0) 6.7 (3.6-12.2) 6.7 (3.7-11.8) 6.3 (3.4-11.4) 3.8 (2.3-6.4)
 Basic education 4.4 (2.0-9.7) 5.5 (2.3-13.0) 2.6 (1.2-5.5) 1.5 (0.8-2.9) 2.2 (1.3-3.8) 2.2 (1.3-4.0) 2.6 (1.5-4.6) 3.2 (1.8-5.8) 1.9 (1.1-3.1)
 Secondary + Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Income level No data      No data    
 Low income   1.5 (1.2-1.9) 2.3 (1.6-3.2) 3.5 (2.3-5.3) 1.7 (1.3-2.3)   1.6 (1.2-2.0) 4.3 (3.3-5.7) 4.5 (3.3-5.9)
 Average income   1.2 (0.9-1.6) 2.3 (1.7-3.2) 2.8 (1.9-4.2) 1.3 (0.9-1.7)   1.1 (0.9-1.5) 2.7 (2.1-3.6) 2.1 (1.6-2.9)
 High income   Ref Ref Ref Ref   Ref Ref Ref
Parity          
 Nulliparous Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Para 1-3 1.1 (0.8-1.6) 1.5 (1.1-2.1) 1.3 (1.0-1.8) 1.8 (1.3-2.6) 1.6 (1.1-2.3) 1.8 (1.3-2.5) 1.9 (1.3-2.6) 1.8 (1.3-2.4) 1.5 (1.1-2.1)
 Para 4+ 1.3 (0.9-1.9) 2.0 (1.3-3.1) 2.3 (1.6-3.4) 3.5 (2.2-5.7) 1.6 (1.0-2.7) 2.0 (1.3-3.1) 3.5 (2.3-5.5) 2.6 (1.8-3.8) 2.2 (1.4-3.3)
  1. *Mutually adjusted for one another, age, marital status, and the clustering at individual and household levels.