Skip to main content

Table 4 Neonatal outcomes of babies in the study

From: Pregnancy, prison and perinatal outcomes in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective cohort study using linked health data

    Number Crude rate Crude RR Adjusted RR (95% CI) (Prison controls = reference group) Crude RR Adjusted RR (95% CI) (Community = reference group)
Pre-term birth (gestational age <37 weeks)       
  Prison pregnancy (ii) 45 15.0 0.97 0.93 (0.67-1.28) 2.85 1.48 (1.07-2.03)*
  Prison controls (iii) 188 15.4 1.00 1.00   
  Community (iv) 2056 5.3    1.00 1.00
Low birthweight (<2500 g)       
  Prison pregnancy (ii) 55 18.3 0.99 0.93 (0.69-1.24) 4.04 1.71 (1.28-2.30)*
  Prison controls (iii) 225 18.4 1.00 1.00   
  Community (iv) 1774 4.5    1.00 1.00
Apgar score at 5 mins <7       
  Prison pregnancy (ii) 8 2.7 0.79 0.74 (0.35-1.57) 1.81 1.19 (0.57-2.49)
  Prison controls (iii) 41 3.4 1.00 1.00   
  Community (iv) 575 1.5    1.00 1.00
Higher order resuscitation       
  Prison pregnancy (ii) 3 1.0 0.68 0.66 (0.20-2.24) 1.17 0.65 (0.20-2.10)
  Prison controls (iii) 18 1.5 1.00 1.00   
  Community (iv) 333 0.9    1.00 1.00
All neonatal hospital admission (v)       
  Prison pregnancy (ii) 167 55.7 1.09 1.12 (0.94-1.33) 1.77 1.51 (1.29-1.78)*
  Prison controls (iii) 622 51.0 1.00 1.00   
  Community (iv) 12302 31.5    1.00 1.00
5+ days in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (v)       
  Prison pregnancy (ii) 51 0.2 0.96 0.93 (0.69-1.26) 3.64 1.45 (1.06-1.97)*
  Prison controls (iii) 216 0.2 1.00 1.00   
  Community (iv) 1826 0.0    1.00 1.00
Optimum baby outcomes       
  Prison pregnancy (ii) 148 49.3 0.96 0.97 (0.81-1.16) 0.63 0.70 (0.60-0.83)*
  Prison controls (iii) 630 51.6 1.00 1.00   
  Community (iv) 30578 78.2    1.00 1.00
Perinatal deaths (vi)       
  Prison pregnancy (ii) 2 0.7 0.46 0.43 (0.10-1.86) 1.06 0.56 (0.14-2.50)
  Prison controls (iii) 18 1.5 1.00 1.00   
  Community (iv) 246 0.6    1.00 1.00
  1. (i) Except for perinatal deaths, live born singleton births and first births during the study period (index births) only. Analyses were adjusted for the confounding effects of maternal age, smoking, parity, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, and any mental health admission/OST.
  2. (ii) Births to women who were incarcerated for a minimum of five consecutive days during this pregnancy.
  3. (iii) Births to women were not incarcerated during this pregnancy, but were incarcerated at another time during the study period.
  4. (iv) A random 10% sample of births to women who were not incarcerated at all during the study period.
  5. (v) Adjusted for pre-term birth, low birthweight, maternal age, smoking, parity, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, and any mental health admission or OST.
  6. (vi) Singleton births and first births during the study period (index births) only were analysed.
  7. *Result was significant (p < 0.05).