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Table 2 Maternal, first ANC visit and delivery characteristics for women who booked in the first, second and third trimesters of their pregnancy

From: The association between timing of initiation of antenatal care and stillbirths: a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa

  Gestational age at first ANC visit
1stTrimester (6–12 Weeks) 2ndTrimester (13–26 Weeks) 3rdTrimester (27–42 Weeks) p-value
Number of observations (%) 2,026 (7.3) 16,641 (60.1) 9,046 (32.6)  
Parity (n) (%)     
Nulliparous 822 (40.6) 7,563 (45.5) 3,533 (39.1) <0.001
Primi/Multiparous 1,204 (59.4) 9,078 (54.6) 5,513 (60.9)
Educational level (n) (%)     
None or primary 99 (4.9) 706 (4.2) 494 (5.5) <0.001
Secondary or tertiary 1,333 (65.8) 10,606 (63.7) 5,346 (59.1)
Missing 594 (29.3) 5,329 (32.0) 3,206 (35.4)
Race (n) (%)     
Coloured 1,641 (81.0) 11,398 (68.5) 5,007 (55.4) <0.001
Black 340 (16.8) 4,943 (29.7) 3,852 (42.6)
Other 45 (2.2) 300 (1.8) 187 (2.1)
Smoking (n) (%)     
Non-smoking 968 (47.8) 8,190 (49.2) 4,422 (48.9) <0.001
Smokers 591 (29.2) 4,118 (24.8) 1,995 (22.1)
Missing 467 (23.1) 4,333 (26.0) 2,629 (29.1)
First ANC visit facility (n) (%)     
Primary care facility 1 68 (3.4) 763 (4.6) 697 (7.7) <0.001
Primary care facility 2 758 (37.4) 4,041 (24.3) 1,874 (20.7)
Primary care facility 3 634 (31.3) 7,176 (43.1) 4,849 (53.6)
Primary care facility 4 566 (27.9) 4,661 (28.0) 1,626 (18.0)
First ANC visit year (n) (%)     
2006 390 (19.3) 1,919 (11.5) 479 (5.3) <0.001
2007 654 (32.3) 5,980 (35.9) 3,460 (38.3)
2008 798 (39.4) 7,031 (42.3) 4,117 (45.5)
2009 184 (9.1) 1,711 (10.3) 990 (10.9)
Delivery facility (n) (%)     
Primary care facility 1 31 (1.5) 348 (2.1) 308 (3.4) <0.001
Primary care facility 2 458 (22.6) 2,779 (16.7) 1,429 (15.8)
Primary care facility 3 313 (15.5) 4,105 (24.7) 3,104 (34.3)
Primary care facility 4 240 (11.9) 2,509 (15.1) 949 (10.5)
Primary care facility 5 2 (0.1) 24 (0.1) 12 (0.1)
Secondary hospital 1 283 (14.0) 2,839 (17.1) 1,603 (17.7)
Tertiary hospital 1 172 (8.5) 969 (5.82) 354 (3.9)
Tertiary hospital 2 527 (26.0) 3,068 (18.4) 1,287 (14.2)
Maternal age     
Median (IQR) 25 (22–30) 25 (21–29) 24 (21–29) <0.001
  1. IQR, Inter-quartile range.