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Table 1 Characteristics of women in the match/mismatch groups reported in mean scores (Standard deviations)

From: The influence of women’s preferences and actual mode of delivery on post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: a population-based, longitudinal study

Variable Total Match 1 Match 2 Mismatch 1 Mismatch F Post hocb
(Time point of measurement) No preference, no ElCSa Preference, ElCS No preference, ElCS 2 preference, no ElCS
(N = 1,493) (N = 53) (N = 42) (N = 112)
  Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean   
(SD) (SD) (SD) (SD) (SD)
PTSD symptoms (8 weeks postpartum) 6.70 (7.99) 6.32 (7.49) 7.70 (9.11) 8.03 (9.49) 10.83 (11.44) 11.96*** 1-4***
Psychological Factors        
Prior PTSD (pregnancy week 17) 0.24 (0.77) 0.20 (0.66) 0.53 (1.51) 0.50 (1.21) 0.54 (1.17) 11.38*** 1-2*, 1-4***
Prior Sexual Abusec (8 weeks postpartum) 0.16 (0.37) 0.16 (0.36) 0.19 (0.40) 0.19 (0.40) 0.27 (0.44) 3.35* 1-4*
Fear of childbirth (pregnancy week 32) 56.41 (19.70) 54.66 (18.16) 69.07 (30.40) 61.23 (19.08) 72.02 (23.78) 37.82*** 1-2***, 1-4***, 3-4*
Depression (pregnancy week 32) 4.91 (4.17) 4.72 (3.99) 6.54 (4.78) 5.50 (5.42) 6.44 (5.10) 9.18*** 1-2**, 1-4***
Anxiety (pregnancy week 32) 12.78 (3.11) 12.66 (3.01) 13.55 (3.54) 13.14 (3.48) 13.93 (3.83) 7.23*** 1-4***
Personality (pregnancy week 17)        
Neuroticism 10.92 (3.12) 10.81 (3.08) 10.92 (3.57) 11.17 (3.09) 12.26 (3.18) 7.68*** 1-4***
Conscientiousness 16.17 (2.57) 16.18 (2.55) 15.82 (2.97) 16.50 (2.51) 16.06 (2.54) 0.63  
Extraversion 14.12 (3.14) 14.13 (3.16) 14.50 (2.57) 14.00 (3.66) 13.93 (3.02) 0.42  
Agreeableness 17.49 (2.00) 17.50 (1.99) 17.34 (2.29) 18.08 (1.64) 17.16 (2.18) 2.34  
Imagination 13.81 (2.56) 13.80 (2.57) 14.26 (2.55) 13.48 (2.70) 13.82 (2.46) 0.80  
Somatic & Demographic Factors        
Medical risk (perinatally) 0.18 (0.39) 0.15 (0.35) 0.66 (0.48) 0.90 (0.30) 0.21 (0.41) 93.16*** 1-2***, 1-3***, 2-3**, 2-4***, 3-4***
Parity (pregnancy week 17) 0.53 (0.50) 0.53 (0.50) 0.79 (0.41) 0.57 (0.50) 0.40 (0.49) 7.53*** 1-2**, 2-4***
Age (perinatally) 31.19 (4.59) 31.12 (4.56) 32.85 (4.77) 32.68 (4.16) 30.72 (4.93) 4.31** 1-2*, 2-4*
Education (perinatally) 0.68 (0.47) 0.69 (0.46) 0.64 (0.48) 0.57 (0.50) 0.56 (0.50) 3.66* 1-4*
  1. aElective Cesarean Section.
  2. bBonferroni post-hoc tests are used ; 1–2 = significant differences between Match 1 and Match 2, 1–3 = significant differences between Match 1 and Mismatch 1, 1–4 = significant differences between Match 1 and Mismatch 2, 2–3 = significant differences between Match 2 and Mismatch 1, 2–4 = significant differences between Match 2 and Mismatch 2, 3–4 = significant differences between Mismatch 1 and Mismatch 2.
  3. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.
  4. cPrior sexual abuse, medical risk, parity and education are dichotomous variables, means are therefore indicating proportions.