Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals for receiving ANC, delivery and PNC services

From: Determinants of maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia: analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

        Variables Use of skilled ANC attendants Use of skilled delivery attendants Use of PNC
  Adjusted OR* (95% CI) P value** Adjusted OR* (95% CI) P Value** Adjusted OR* (95% CI) P Value**
Residence          
   Urban 2.3 1.9-2.9 0.001 4.9 3.8-6.3 0.001 2.6 2.0-3.4 0.001
   Rural 1.0         
Marital status          
   Never Married 1.3 1.1-1.6 0.008 0.8 0.4-0.9 0.027 1.8 1.1-3.2 0.035
   Married/living together 0.9 0.8-1.1 0.154 0.7 0.5-0.8 0.001 0.6 0.5-0.8 0.001
   Divorced/separated/widowed 1.0    1.0    1.0   
Age          
   15-19 0.8 0.6-1.2 0.448 0.5 0.3-0.9 0.013 0.8 0.6-1.4 0.621
   20-34 1.0 0.9-1.2 0.635 0.9 0.7-1.3 0.710 0.9 0.7-1.1 0.190
   35-49 1.0    1.0    1.0   
Religion          
   Orthodox 1.3 0.8-2.1 0.418 5.9 1.3-27.3 0.022 8.7 1.2-64 0.034
   Catholics 2.2 0.8-3.5 0.183 5.5 0.9-31.9 0.057 3.4 0.4-31.3 0.284
   Protestants 1.7 0.9-2.7 0.068 4.8 1.1-22.2 0.043 7.7 1.1-56.4 0.045
   Muslims 1.5 0.8-2.2 0.258 4.2 0.9-18.9 0.066 7.2 1.0-53.0 0.051
   Others 1.0    1.0   0.019    0.056
Ethnicity          
   Amhara 1.9 1.4-2.1 0.001 1.1 0.8-1.5 0.541 0.8 0.6-1.1 0.088
   Guragie 3.1 2.2-5.4 0.001 2.8 1.8-4.4 0.001 1.1 0.7-1.5 0.806
   Oromo 1.2 1.1-1.4 0.038 1.2 0.9-1.5 0.206 0.8 0.7-1.1 0.142
   Sidama 0.6 0.5-1.0 0.067 0.3 0.1-0.9 0.027 1.0 0.5-1.9 0.958
   Tigrie 2.7 1.9-3.1 0.001 0.5 0.3-0.7 0.001 0.9 0.6-1.2 0.433
   Wolaita 0.4 0.3-0.7 0.001 0.2 0.1-0.5 0.001 0.6 0.3-1.9 0.135
   Others 1.0    1.0   0.001    0.374
Educational status          
   No education 1.0      0.001    
   Primary 1.6 1.4-1.9 0.001 1.6 1.3-2.0 0.001 1.3 1.1-1.6 0.026
   Secondary 3.4 2.9-5.4 0.001 3.1 2.0-4.7 0.001 2.4 1.6-3.4 0.000
   Higher 3.8 1.8-7.8 0.001 3.4 1.9-6.2 0.001 3.2 2.0-5.2 0.000
HH Wealth          
   Poorest 1.0   0.001    0.001    0.001
   Poorer 1.2 1.1-1.5 0.041 1.0 0.6-1.4 0.794 1.3 0.9-1.8 0.167
   Middle 1.5 1.2-1.8 0.001 0.9 0.6-1.4 0.679 1.1 0.8-1.6 0.475
   Richer 1.7 1.4-2.1 0.001 1.4 1.0-2.0 0.051 1.9 1.3-2.5 0.000
   Richest 3.7 2.9-4.8 0.001 3.0 2.1-4.2 0.001 2.4 1.7-3.5 0.000
Parity          
   1 1.2 0.9-1.5 0.138 2.4 1.7-3.4 0.001 1.4 1.1-1.9 0.019
   2-4 1.1 1.0-1.3 0.169 1.4 1.1-1.8 0.017 1.1 0.8-1.3 0.702
   5 or more       0.001    0.016
No. of births in the last 5 yrs          
   1 1.3 1.1-1.5 0.001 1.3 1.0-1.6 0.025 - - -
   2+ 1.0    1.0      
Husbands education       0.001    
   No 1.0         
   Primary 1.3 1.1-1.5 0.001 1.4 1.1-1.7 0.009 1.1 0.8-1.3 0.624
   Secondary 2.0 1.5-2.7 0.001 2.1 1.6-2.9 0.001 1.7 1.3-2.3 0.001
   Higher 1.9 1.3-2.7 0.001 1.9 1.3-2.9 0.002 1.6 1.1-2.4 0.009
Autonomy of woman on health care spending          
   Women + -Husband 1.4 1.2-1.6 0.001 1.3 1.1-1.7 0.022 1.0 0.8-1.2 0.853
   Husband only or others 1.0    1.0      
Husband’s work status          
   Jobless 1.0         
   working 1.1 1.1-1.3 0.045 - - - - - -
Woman’s work status          
   Jobless        - - -
   working 1.1 1.1-1.3 0.033 0.9 0.8-1.1 0.576 - - -
Reading newspaper frequency          
   Not at all 1.0         
   Less than once a week 1.1 0.8-1.5 0.375 1.2 0.9-1.6 0.187 1.0 0.7-1.3 0.802
   At least once a week 0.9 0.5-1.6 0.726 2.1 1.1-3.7 0.016 1.1 0.7-1.8 0.548
Listening radio frequency          
   Not at all 1.0         
   Less than once a week 1.4 1.2-1.6 0.001 0.9 0.7-1.1 0.418 1.0 0.8-1.2 0.778
   At least once a week 1.3 1.1-1.6 0.002 0.9 0.8-1.2 0.774 1.2 1.0-1.5 0.099
Watching television frequency          
   Not at all 1.0         
   Less than once a week 1.3 1.1-1.5 0.001    - - - -
   At least once a week 1.3 1.3-2.0 0.001   - - - - -
USE OF ANC during the index pregnancy          
   Yes - - - 1.3 1.1-1.7 0.001 3.4 2.8-4.1 0.001
   No - - - 1.0 - - 1.0 - -
  1. *The AORs have been adjusted for all other variables in the model.
  2. **The statistical test used was Chi square test. A 95%CI used to determine significant association.