Skip to main content

Table 2 Intra- and postpartum outcomes of 80 subjects that had vaginal deliveries

From: A comparison of maternal and neonatal outcomes between water immersion during labor and conventional labor and delivery

Variables Water Immersion (n = 33) Conventional Labor (n = 47) p-value
Duration of labor, min    
First stage 596.55 ± 249.71 552.30 ± 241.85 0.429
Second stage 58.79 ± 31.37 56.04 ± 35.15 0.720
Third stage 10.88 ± 6.14 9.94 ± 5.24 0.463
Total 666.55 ± 259.70 618.32 ± 252.30 0.408
Bleeding, mL    
Intrapartum 188.79 ± 107.03 205.32 ± 152.37 0.593
24 h postpartum 324.39 ± 125.84 367.02 ± 239.72 0.353
VAS pain score    
Cervical dilation of 3 cma 10 (7 , 10) 10 (8 , 10) 0.776
30 min after cervical dilation of 3 cmb 6 (5 , 8) 10 (9 , 10) <.001*
60 min after cervical dilation of 3 cmc,d 7 (6 , 8) 10 (10, 10) <.001*
Pelvic floor dysfunction    
SUI symptoms during pregnancy 6 (18.2) 15 (31.9) 0.169
SUI symptoms 42 days postpartum 2 (6.1) 12 (25.5) 0.035*
POP 42 days postpartum 8 (24.2) 12 (25.5) 0.896
Pelvic floor muscle strength 42 days postpartum    0.766
0 3 (9.1) 4 (8.5)  
1 6 (18.2) 8 (17.0)  
2 11 (33.3) 15 (31.9)  
3 12 (36.4) 18 (38.3)  
4 1 (3.0) 2 (4.3)  
  1. VAS, visual analogue scale; SUI, stress urinary incontinence; POP, pelvic organ prolapse.
  2. Continuous data were summarized as mean ± standard deviation (SD) for normally distributed data and median (interquartile range [IQR]) for non-normally distributed data; categorical data were summarized as number (percentage).
  3. aExperimental group, VAS evaluation when cervical dilation of 3 cm before entering the tub; conventional group, VAS evaluation when cervical dilation of 3 cm.
  4. bExperimental group, VAS evaluation 30 min after cervical dilation of 3 cm and in the tub; conventional group, VAS evaluation 30 min after cervical dilation of 3 cm.
  5. cExperimental group, VAS evaluation 60 min after cervical dilation of 3 cm and in the tub; conventional group, VAS evaluation 60 min after cervical dilation of 3 cm.
  6. dComplete data were not available for 12 subjects (5 in water immersion group and 7 in conventional labor group) due to the subject leaving the water tank or completing delivery.
  7. *p < 0.05, indicates statistically significant difference between groups.