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Table 6 Paternal involvement after birth using postnatal paternal engagement score (95% confidence interval) and maternal problems by parity

From: Fathers’ engagement in pregnancy and childbirth: evidence from a national survey

  Primiparous women Multiparous women
  Mean (95% CI) Adjusted* p Mean (95% CI) Adjusted* p
How woman felt at time of survey     
very/quite well 16.0 (15.9, 16.1)   14.7 (14.5, 14.8)  
not very well/ill 15.3 (14.8, 15.8) 0.00 13.6 (13.1, 14.1) 0.00
Number of postnatal problems at 10 days     
0,1 15.9 (15.7, 16.2)   14.6 (14.3, 14.8)  
2,3 16.1 (15.9, 16.3)   14.8 (14.5, 15.0)  
4+ 15.9 (15.7, 16.1) 0.50 14.2 (13.8, 14.6) 0.04
Number of postnatal problems at 1 month     
0 16.1 (15.8, 16.3)   14.8 (14.6, 15.1)  
1 16.0 (15.8, 16.3)   14.6 (14.3, 15.0)  
2+ 15.9 (15.7, 16.0) 0.05 14.2 (13.9, 14.4) 0.00
Number of postnatal problems at 3 months     
0 15.9 (15.8, 16.1)   14.7 (14.5, 14.9)  
1+ 16.0 (15.8, 16.2) 0.99 14.3 (14.0, 14.5) 0.01
Postnatal psychological problems at 1 month     
yes 15.9 (15.7, 16.2)   14.1 (13.7, 14.4)  
no 16.0 (15.8, 16.1) 0.68 14.7 (14.5, 14.8) 0.00
Postnatal PTSD type symptoms at 1 month     
yes 15.9 (15.7, 16.1)   14.1 (13.7, 14.4)  
no 16.0 (15.8, 16.1) 0.21 14.7 (14.5, 14.8) 0.01
Postnatal bodily problems at 1 month     
yes 15.9 (15.7, 16.1)   14.3 (14.1, 14.6)  
no 16.0 (15.9, 16.2) 0.14 14.7 (14.5, 14.8) 0.02
Postnatal check     
Check carried out 16.0 (15.9, 16.1)   14.6 (14.4, 14.7)  
Check not carried out 15.5 (15.2, 15.9) 0.03 14.4 (14.0, 14.8) 0.39
  1. PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
  2. *Adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, IMD, age left full-time education, and father’s country of birth.
  3. Other variables entered in analysis but not significant in either primiparous or multiparous women: visited at home by midwife, number of different midwives who visited, would have liked to see midwife more/less frequently at home, met midwife before, confidence in staff postnatally, choice about where to access care, groups of postnatal problems at 10 days and 3 months.