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Table 1 Prevalence of perineal trauma in women with a singleton vaginal birth

From: Incidence of and risk factors for perineal trauma: a prospective observational study

  Hospital FMU Homebirth
Nullip = 1,151 Nullip = 109 Nullip = 42
Multip = 1,204 Multip = 179 Multip = 69
Number with outcome Number with outcome Number with outcome
n % 95% CI n % 95% CI n % 95% CI
Intact perineum          
Nullip 100 8.6 7.1, 10.3 19 17.4 10.3, 24.6 6 14.3 3.6, 25.0
Multip 343 28.5 26.0, 31.0 71 39.7 32.5, 46.9 39 56.5 44.7, 68.3
Labial tear          
Nullip 219 19.0 16.8, 21.3 27 24.8 16.6, 33.0 12 28.6 14.7, 42.4
Multip 148 12.3 10.4, 14.2 30 16.8 11.3, 22.2 5 7.2 1.1, 13.4
Tear of vaginal wall only          
Nullip 62 5.4 4.1, 6.7 8 7.3 2.4, 12.3 2 4.8 0.0, 11.3
Multip* 48 4.0 2.9, 5.1 11 6.2 2.7, 9.7 1 1.5 0.0, 4.3
First degree          
Nullip 63 5.5 4.2, 6.8 18 16.5 9.5, 23.6 7 16.7 5.3, 28.1
Multip 147 12.2 10.4, 14.1 33 18.4 12.7, 24.0 11 15.9 7.2, 24.7
Second degree          
Nullip 404 35.1 32.3, 37.9 38 34.8 25.9, 43.9 12 29.0 14.7, 42.4
Multip 461 38.3 35.5, 41.0 44 24.6 18.3, 31.0 14 20.3 10.7, 29.9
Third degree (a, b, c)          
Nullip 69 6.0 4.7, 7.5 2 1.8 0, 4.4 3 7.1 0, 15.0
Multip 29 2.4 1.6, 3.4 1 0.6 0, 1.7 0 0 na
Fourth degree          
Nullip 4 0.3 0.0, 0.7 0 0 na 0 0 Na
Multip 2 0.2 0.0, 0.4 0 0 na 0 0 na
Episiotomy          
Nullip 364 31.6 30.0, 34.3 7 6.4 1.7, 11.5 1 2.4 0.0, 7.1
Multip 84 7.0 5.5, 8.4 0 0 na 0 0 na
Episiotomy plus 3 rd or 4 th degree tear          
Nullip 34 0.4 0.1, 0.9 0 0 na 0 0 na
Multip 5 0.0 2.0, 4.1 0 0 na 0 0 na
Extensive tear (any 3 rd or 4 th degree tear with/without episiotomy)          
Nullip 81 7.0 5.6, 8.5 2 1.8 0, 4.4 3 7.1 0, 15.0
Multip 32 2.7 1.7, 3.6 1 0.6 0, 1.7 0 0 na
  1. Footnotes: * n = 1,203 patients analysed for hospital, and n = 178 for FMU.