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Table 2 Unadjusted odds ratios for determinants of health facility delivery among women in Kenya 1

From: Factors influencing place of delivery for women in Kenya: an analysis of the Kenya demographic and health survey, 2008/2009

Exposure variable OR2(95% CI) P value3 Exposure variable OR2(95% CI) P value3
Socio-cultural factors    Perceived benefit/need   
Maternal age    No. of ANC2visits   
≤20 years 1.00 <0.001* ≤1 visits 1.00 <0.001*
21 – 34 years 0.92 (0.69 – 1.22) 2 visits 2.68 (1.75 – 4.10)
≥35 years 0.58 (0.41 – 0.81) 3 visits 4.05 (2.82 – 5.83)
Marital status   ≥ 4 visits 8.38 (6.01 – 11.7)
Married 1.00 <0.001 Birth order   
Never Married 1.01 (0.75 – 1.37) 1st delivery 1.00 <0.001*
Living together 1.10 (0.77 – 1.58) 2nd delivery 0.53 (0.40 – 0.71)
Widowed 0.56 (0.48 – 0.82) 3rd delivery 0.30 (0.23 – 0.39)
Divorced 0.85 (0.36 – 2.03) ≥4th delivery 0.18 (0.13 – 0.26)
Separated 1.23 (0.80 – 1.89) Prenatal healthcare provider  
Ethnic group    Nurse 1.00 <0.001
Luhya 1.00 <0.001 Doctor 1.42 (1.05 – 1.91)  
Kalenjin 1.05 (0.57 – 1.91) TBA3 0.22 (0.10 – 0.48)  
Kamba 1.34 (0.84 – 2.13) No ANC 0.13 (0.07 – 0.24)  
Kikuyu 6.03 (3.45 – 10.52) Health facility of ANC 2  
Kisii 1.80 (1.16 – 2.80) Govt hospital 1.00 <0.001
Luo 1.84 (1.25 – 2.72) None 0.08 (0.04 – 0.14)
Meru 5.19 (2.19 – 12.3) Health centre 0.53 (0.39 – 0.72)
Mijikenda/Swahili 1.30 (0.78 – 2.16) Dispensary 0.34 (0.24 – 0.48)
Somali 0.89 (0.45 – 1.79) Private facility 2.15 (1.34 – 3.44)
Other tribes 0.97 (0.52 – 1.81) Faith-based 0.82 (0.46 – 1.45)
Religion    Other 0.09 (0.03 – 0.29)  
Protestant/ Christian 1.00 <0.001 Physical accessibility  
Roman Catholic 1.01 (0.78 – 1.31) Region   
Muslim 0.70 (0.43 – 1.14) Nyanza 1.00  
No religion 0.20 (0.09 – 0.47) Nairobi 10.7 (5.35 – 21.3) <0.001
Other 4.56 (0.88 – 23.6) Central 3.25 (2.10 – 5.01)  
Household size 0.42 (0.32 – 0.53) <0.001 Coast 1.08 (0.73 – 1.59)  
Presence of co-wife   Eastern 1.10 (0.72 – 1.68)  
No 1.00   Rift Valley 0.57 (0.37 – 0.87)  
Yes 0.41 (0.30 – 0.55) <0.001 Western 0.46 (0.31 – 0.69)  
Relationship to household head   North Eastern 0.25 (0.13 – 0.49)  
Head 1.00   Residence   
Wife 1.15 (0.93 – 1.421) 0.001 Rural 1.00  
Other 1.38 (1.08 – 1.76) Urban 4.86 (3.39 – 7.07) <0.001
Maternal education   Distance from health facility  
None 1.00   <2 1.00  
Primary 3.30 (2.10 – 5.19) <0.001* 2 – 5 Km 0.50 (0.46 – 0.68) <0.001*
Secondary 11.08 (6.63 – 18.5) >5 Km 0.21 (0.13 – 0.35)  
Higher 42.0 (18.2 – 96.8) Economic accessibility  
    Wealth index   
    Poorest 1.00  
    Poor 2.05 (1.44 – 2.91) <0.001*
    Middle 3.55 (2.57 – 4.90)  
    Richer 5.30 (3.61 – 7.78)  
    Richest 18.3 (11.5 – 29.2)  
    Insurance   
    No 1.00  
    Yes 9.78 (6.47 – 14.79) <0.001
  1. * p values for trend; 12008/09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey Data; 2Unadjusted Odds Ratio 3Chi squared p values.