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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: International migration and caesarean birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference (language of publication) Method (geographical coverage, data source, data yr) Receiving country Population Findings Migrants vs. Non-migrants*(Overallcaesarean rates)(Emergency&/orElective caesarean rates) Quality
Alonso CP, Maresca MI, Oritz TA, & Serrano MM. (2006) (Spanish) Local, hospital records, 2000-2002 Spain (Madrid) 2759 African, American, European, & Oriental "immigrants" vs. 3990 Spanish women. L & ND overall (not statistically tested) Fair
Aurelius G, & Ryde-Blomqvist E. (1978) (English) Local, hospital records, 1968-1969 Sweden (Stockholm) 1235 “Immigrants” from Scandinavia, West, South, & East Europe, & “other countries” vs. 412 Swedish women. Only singleton births included. H & ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Barron SL, & Vessey MP. (1966) (English) Local, hospital records, 1958-1960 UK (South London) 1563 West Indian & Irish “immigrants” vs. 3891 British women. Only singleton births. H overall (not statistically tested; W Indian: primips H, multips ND; Irish: primips ND, multips H) Fair
Berger C, Liska G, Gallier J, & Soutoul JH. (1973) (French) Local, hospital records, 1970-1972 France (Tours) 800 Portuguese/Spanish, North African, Yugoslavia, “other” “migrants” vs. 2655 French women. M overall (not statistically tested) Fair
Berger C, Laugier J, & Soutoul JH. (1974) (French)
Bona G, Zaffaroni M, Cataldo F, Sandri F, & Salvioli GP. (2001) (English) National, population-based hospital data, 1996-1997 Italy 3347 “Legal immigrants from developing countries” (Latin America, North Africa, Sub Saharan Africa, Middle East, Indian Sub-continent, Far East, Oceania, Eastern Europe, & Gipsies) vs. 6694 Italians. ND overall (all immigrants combined; unadjusted; Variation by groups but not statistically tested) Fair
Braveman P, Egerter S, Edmonston F, & Verdon M. (1995) (English) Regional, population-based registry, 1991 US (California) 81,445 Asian and Latina “foreign born” vs. 93,685 “Whites”. Only singleton primiparous women. L & ND overall (adjusted) Good
Cassell E. (1995) (English) Thesis Regional, population-based registry, 1982-1992 Australia (Victoria) 5268 Filipino-born vs. 507,457 Australian-born. H overall (stratified by parity and age caesarean rates consistently H) H emerg (unadjusted) H elect (unadjusted) Good
Chan A, Roder D, & Macharper T. (1988) (English) Regional, population-based registry, 1981-1983 Australia (South Australia) 5675 “Non-English speaking countries” (includes Italy, Holland, Germany, Vietnam, Greece, Yugoslavia, Philippines, & “other”) vs. 2894 Australian-born. H overall (all immigrants combined; unadjusted; Variation by groups but not statistically tested) H emerg (all immigrants combined; unadjusted) H elect (all immigrants combined; unadjusted) Fair
Comas M, Català L, Sala M, et al. (2011) (English) Local, hospital records, 2006-2007 Spain (Barcelona) 564 Foreign-born (includes women from South America, Asia and North Africa- Morocco, Pakistan and Ecuador most represented) vs. 462 Spanish-born women. Only women who lived in hospital catchment area were included. ND overall (all immigrants combined; unadjusted) Fair
Delvaux T, Buekens P, Thoumsin H, Dramaix M, & Collette J. (2003) (English) Local, research study, 1997-1998 Belgium (Liege) 89 North-African nationality vs. 184 Belgian nationality women. Singleton live births, excluded women with gestational diabetes & malformed babies at birth. ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Diani F, Zanconato G, Foschi F, Turinetto A, & Franchi M. (2003) (English) Local, hospital records, 1992-2001 Italy (Verona) 1014 “Non-EU women” (including Central Africa, Northern Africa/Middle East, Eastern Europe, Asia, & Latin America) vs. 12,931 Italians. H overall (all immigrants combined; unadjusted) Fair
Fedeli U, Alba N, Lisiero M, Zambon F, Avossa F, & Spolaore P. (2010) (English) Regional, population-based registry, 2006-2007 Italy (Veneto region) 20,332 Regular and Irregular foreign born/migrants vs. 73,098 Italian women. L overall (unadjusted; when stratified by age for regular migrants ND across strata except ages 30-34 years H) Fair
Forna F, Jamieson DJ, Sanders D, & Lindsay MK. (2003) (English) Local, hospital records, 1991-2001 US (Atlanta) 13,465 Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Europe, Central & South America, Middle East & “other” foreign-born vs. 36,439 US born (mostly Black women). Excluded women with no prenatal care. H & ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Gagnon AJ, Dougherty G, Platt RW, et al. (2007) (English) and Gagnon AJ, Van Hulst A, Merry L, et al. (2012) (English) Unpublished when review of literature was conducted, 2007 reference describes original study; 2012 reference is publication of caesarean results (after review of literature was completed) Local, research study, 2003-2004 Canada (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) 1018 “Recently arrived migrants (≤ 5 years)” and defined by UN Macro Region (Europe, Latin America, Africa, West Asia/North Africa, & South-Central Asia), migration status (refugee, asylum seeker, non-refugee immigrant) and length of time (≤ 2 years vs. > 2 years) vs. 2482 Canadian-born. Only low-risk (≤ 35 years, gestational age ≤ 42 weeks) primiparous women. H & ND overall (unadjusted but restricted to low-risk population) ND emerg (unadjusted but restricted to low-risk population) ND elect (not statistically tested) Good
Gagnon AJ, Wahoush O, Dougherty G, et al. (2006) (English) Unpublished, 2006 reference describes study Local, research study, 2006-2009 Canada (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) 1025 “Recently arrived migrants” (≤ 5 years) defined by migration status: refugee, asylum seeker, non-refugee immigrant vs. 514 Canadian-born. ND overall (unadjusted) ND emerg (unadjusted) ND elect (unadjusted) Fair
Gann P, Nghiem L, & Warner S. (1989) (English) Local, hospital records, 1981-1987 US (Lowell) 310 Cambodian refugees vs. 110 low income Whites. Only singleton births included. Primary caesareans only. L overall (unadjusted; ND primips, L multips) Fair
Gayral-Taminh M, Arnaud C, Parant O, Fournie A, Reme JM, & Grandjean H. (1999) (French) Local, hospital records, 1988-1994 (excl 1990) France (Toulouse) 2636 “Black Africa” & Maghreb vs. 3172 French women. Only singleton births included. H & ND overall (unadjusted; results consistent when stratified by parity) ND during labour caesarean (unadjusted) ND pre-labour caesarean (unadjusted) Fair
Giani U, Bruzzese D, Pugliese A, Saporito M, & Triassi M. (2011) (Italian, used English abstract) Regional, population-based registry, 2005 Italy (Campania) 1709 Foreign-born women vs. 28,557 Italian women. Excluded repeat caesareans. L elect (adjusted) Good
Harlap S, Kaufman R, Prywes R, Davies AM, Sterk VV, & Weiskopf P. (1971) (English) Local, research study, 1964-1967 Israel (West Jerusalem) 13,112 Asian, North African, & Western countries (based on birth place) vs. 7635 Israeli women. Only singleton births. H overall (not statistically tested) Fair
Hazekamp JT. (1982) (English) Local, hospital records, 1978 Norway (Oslo) 51 Wives of Pakistani migrant workers vs. 51 Norwegian women matched for age and parity. ND overall (not statistically tested) Fair
Helsel D, Petitti DB, & Kunstadter P. (1992) (English) Regional, population-based registry, 1985-1988 US (Merced & San Joaquin counties, California) 1937 Hmong refugees vs. 3776 non-Hispanic Whites. Mixed marriages excluded. Only singleton births included. L overall (results consistent across different age and parity strata) Good
Henry OA, Guaran RL, Petterson CD, & Walstab JE. (1992) (English) Local, hospital records, 1979-1988 Australia (Melbourne) 1123 Vietnamese (likely refugees) vs. 35,373 Australian born women. ND overall (adjusted) Good
Holan S, Vangen S, Hanssen K, & Stray-Pedersen B. (2008) (Norwegian) Local, research study, 1993-1998 Norway (Oslo) 220 Asian/African women combined (including women from Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Vietnam, Morocco, & Somalia) immigrants with diabetes vs. 262 Norwegian women with diabetes. Only singleton births included. L overall (unclear if statistically significant; results similar when just primips) ND emerg (not statistically tested) ND elect (not statistically tested) Fair
Howell R. (1989) (English) Local, hospital records, 1980-1984 Australia (Brisbane) 338 Vietnamese refugees and Filipino women (most married to Caucasian men) vs. 14,790 Australian-born women. ND overall (unadjusted; ND for primips, L & ND for multips) H emerg (not statistically tested), H (primips) & ND (multips) emerg (unadjusted) L & ND elect (unadjusted but consistent results by parity) Fair
Ismail KI, Marchocki Z, Brennan DJ, & O’Donoghue K. (2011) (English) Local, hospital records, 2009 Ireland (Cork) 867 Eastern European women (refers to women from Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, & Ukraine); nationality used to categorize; most would be economic migrants. Multiple, breech and elective or pre-labour caesareans were excluded vs. 5550 Irish women. ND caesareans during labour (unadjusted) L (primips, unadjusted but results consistent when stratified by age) & ND (multips, unadjusted) caesareans during labour Good
Ismail KI, Marchocki Z, Brennan DJ, & O’Donoghue K. (2010) (English) Conference abstract
Janevic T.(2011) (English) Conference abstract Local, population-based registry, 1995-2003 US (New York) 511,564 “Foreign-born and ethnicity/region of origin” : North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa unspecified, Non-Hispanic Caribbean, Hispanic Caribbean, Mexico, South America, Central America, East Asia, South East Asia/Pacific Islands, & South Central Asian vs. 449,817 US born women. Singleton births only. M overall (adjusted) Good
Johnson EB, Reed SD, Hitti J, & Batra M. (2005) (English) Regional, population-based registry, 1993-2001 US (Washington) 579 Somali immigrants vs. 4837 US-born Whites & Blacks. Only singleton births. H (compared to US Whites) & ND (compared to US Blacks) (not statistically tested) H (primips) & ND (multips) overall; (adjusted) Good
Kaminski M. (1975) (French) Local, research study, 1963-1969 France (Paris) 1795 Migrants from North Africa, South Europe & the Antilles (only women whose husbands were also born outside of France were considered migrants) vs. 5774 French women. H& ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Kingston D, Heaman M, Chalmers B, Kaczorowski J, et al. (2011) (English) National, Population-based survey, 2006 Canada 16,040 “Landed immigrants” (residents) (including North America, Central America, Caribbean/Bermuda, South America, West Europe, East Europe, North Europe, South/unspecified Europe, East Africa, North Africa, West/Central Asia/Middle East/Kurdistan, East Asia, South East Asia/Asia/East Timor, South Asia/Asia non-specified) defined as recent (≤ 5 years) and non-recent arrival (> 5 years) vs. 57,800 Canadian-born. Only singleton births. Weighted numbers. ND overall (all countries combined & stratified by time since arrival; adjusted; Variation by country but not statistically tested) Good
Lansakara N, Brown SJ, & Gartland D. (2010) (English) Local, research study, 2003-2005 Australia (Melbourne) 212 Mothers born overseas of non-English speaking background- needed to be fluent in English to participate; included women from 53 different countries, largest group were from South Asia, Sri Lanka and India vs. 1074 Australian-born mothers. Primiparous women only. ND overall (all countries combined; unadjusted) ND emerg (all countries combined; unadjusted) ND elect (all countries combined; unadjusted) Fair
LeRay C, Carayol M, Zeitlin J, Breart G, & Goffinet F. (2006) (English) National, research study, 2001-2002 France 618 “Origin abroad” (including North Africa, North European, South European, African & Asian) vs. 2797 French. Only low risk primiparous, singleton, cephalic presentation, no induction, Birthweight 2500-4500 g babies, included. H caesarean during labour (all migrants combined; adjusted; Variation by groups but not statistically tested) Good
Loew D, & Schrank P. (1966) (German) Local, hospital records, 1956-1965 Germany (Russelheim) 398 “Foreigners” (including Southern Europe, East Europe & “other”) vs. 6602 German women. H overall (all foreigners combined; unadjusted) Fair
Ma J, & Bauman A. (1996) (English) Regional, population-based registry, 1990-1992 Australia (New South Wales) 64,922 Immigrant women from Europe, Asia, Africa, New Zealand/Oceania, Middle East, America vs. Australian (non-Aboriginal). M overall (unadjusted) Fair
Malin M, & Gissler M. (2009) (English) National, population-based registry, 1999-2001 Finland 6532 Migrants from Latin American/Caribbean, Somali, African, Vietnamese, South East Asian, Iran/Afghan/Iraq, Chinese, South Asian, Middle East, Baltic, Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, & Nordic (only those with resident status) vs. 158,469 Finnish women. Only singleton births. M overall (unadjusted but results presented by parity) Fair
Maslovitz S, Kupferminc MJ, Lessing JB, & Many A. (2005) (English) Local, hospital records, 2001-2002 Israel (Tel Aviv) 721 Non-resident foreign labourers [mostly Eastern Europe, also included women from Africa (Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana) and Asia (Thailand, Philippines, China)] vs. 16,012 Israeli residents. H overall (all migrants combined; unadjusted) H emerg (all migrants combined; unadjusted) L elect (all migrants combined; unadjusted) Fair
Merten S, Wyss C, & Ackermann-Liebrich U. (2007) (English) National, population-based hospital data, 2000-2002 Switzerland 24,284 Migrants based on nationalities from various regions &/or countries of birth: Africa, Latin America, Asia, Balkan/Turkey, EU/USA; Angola, DR Congo, Morocco, Somalia, Tunisia, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, UK, & USA vs. 7500 Swiss women. M overall (adjusted) Good
Moscioni P, Romagnoli C, Pomili G, & Gilardi G. (1995) (Italian) Local, hospital records, 1992-1994 Italy (Perugia) 186 “Immigrant/foreign women” vs. 1716 Italian women. L overall (unadjusted) Fair
Mossialos E, Allin S, Karras K, & Davaki K. (2005) (English) Local, hospital records, 2002 Greece (Athens) 181 “Immigrants” (majority from Albania, also included other Balkan countries and India/Philippines/Pakistan) vs. 259 Greek women. Only singleton births. L overall (all immigrants combined; adjusted) Good
Oliva GC, Zannella MP, Filidi C, Cavaliere AF, Casarella L, & Mancuso S. (2007) (Italian) Local, hospital records, 2000-2004 Italy (Rome) 2628 “Foreign women based on nationality” vs. 11,976 Italian women. L overall (unadjusted) H during labour caesarean (unadjusted) L pre-labour caesarean (unadjusted) Fair
Panagopoulos P, Tsoukalos G, Economou A, et al. (2005) (English) Local, hospital records, 2000-2004 Greece (Piraeus) 1990 “Immigrants” (according to nationality) vs. 1081 Greek women. ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Parsons L, Macfarlane AJ, & Golding J. (1993) (English) National, population-based registry, 1982-1985 UK Mediterranean, African (excluding East Africa), Bangladeshi, & Pakistani vs. UK women. M overall (+ variation by parity; unclear if statistically significant) Fair
Press F, Katz M, Leiberman JR, Shoham I, & Glezerman M. (1993) (English) Local, hospital records, 1988-1991 Israel (Be’er Sheva) 431 Ethiopian Jewish immigrants vs. 20,047 Israeli Jewish women. ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Richman D, & Dixon S. (1985) (English) Local, research study, 1980-1981 US (San Diego) 50 Hmong and Cambodian refugees vs. 25 Caucasian (non-Spanish, non-Oriental surnames). L overall (unadjusted) Fair
Rio I, Castelló A, Barona C, et al. (2010) (English) Regional, population-based registry, 2005-2006 Spain (Catalonia & Valencia) 34,746 Latin America, Eastern Europe, & Maghreb vs. 180,633 Spanish women. Only singleton births. M overall (adjusted for age but not parity) Fair
Rizzo N, Ciardelli V, Gandolfi-Colleoni G, et al. (2004) (English) Local, hospital records, 1997-2001 Italy (Bologna) 510 Immigrant women from non-EU countries vs. 510 Western world (Italy, other EU, Australia, Canada, US). Only singleton births. ND overall (unadjusted) ND emerg (unadjusted) L elect (unadjusted) Fair
Roman H, Blondel B, Bréart G, & Goffinet F. (2008) (English) National, population-based survey, 2003 France 585 Africa (excluding North Africa), North Africa, Europe, & “other” nationalities vs. 4658 French women. Only included low risk, singleton births, with no previous caesarean or medical indications for caesarean. H & ND overall (not statistically tested) H & ND caesareans during labour (adjusted) H & ND caesareans pre-labour (adjusted) Good
Rudman A, El-Khouri B, & Waldenström U. (2008) (English) National, population-based survey, 2000 Sweden 236 Swedish-speaking Foreign-born vs. 2472 Swedish women. ND overall (unadjusted) ND emerg (unadjusted) ND elect (unadjusted) Fair
Rumbaut RG. (1996) (English) Local, hospital records, 1989-1991 US (San Diego) 1211 “Foreign-born & ethnicity”: defined as White, Asian, Hispanic, & Black; Europe/Canada, Middle East, Indo-Chinese, East Asian, Mexican, Central America & Sub-Saharan Africa vs. 253 US born. L & ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Saurel-Cubizolles M-J, Saucedo M, Drewniak N, Blondel B, & Bouvier-Colle M-H. (2012) (French) National, Population-based survey, 2010 France 1864 Foreign-born (based on nationality) who could complete the survey in French: European (including Turkey), North-African, Sub-Saharan African, & other; 13% arrived in 2009/2010 and 36% between 2005-2008. vs. 12,125 French women. H & ND overall (unadjusted) H & ND caesarean during labour (unadjusted) H & ND caesarean pre- labour (unadjusted) Fair
Saurwein A. (1969) (German) Local, hospital records, 1964-1968 Germany (Cologne) 297 “Foreigners” from Southern Europe (including Turks, Greeks, Italian, & Spanish women) vs. 7465 German women. H overall (all immigrants combined; unadjusted) Fair
Schliemann F, & Schliemann G. (1975) (German) Local, population-based registry, 1969-1973 Germany (Hamburg) 1217 “Foreigners/Guest workers” from Spain, Italy, Portugal, Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey & “others” vs. 5112 German women. H & ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Schultze-Naumburg R, & Scholtes G. (1976) (German, used English abstract) Local, hospital records, 1968-1973 Germany (Berlin) 1941 “Foreign women” vs. 9009 German women. L overall (not statistically tested) Fair
Shah D, Tay A, Desai A, Parikh M, Nauta M, & Yoong W. (2011) (English) Local, hospital records, 2006-2008 UK (North London) 125 First generation Chinese immigrant women (born in China). Economic migrants most likely and mean length of time in UK =3.2 years. vs. 125 British Caucasian women matched for age and parity. L overall (unadjusted but matched by age and parity) Good
Shah RR, Ray JG, Taback N, Meffe F, & Glazier R. (2011) (English) Local, hospital records, 2002-2006 Canada (Toronto) 3672 "Foreign born" based on country and region of birth using World Bank classification: Latin America/Caribbean, Western Europe/USA/Japan/Australia/New Zealand, Eastern Europe/Central Asia, Middle East/North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, East Asia/Pacific. Asylum seekers examined based on health insurance. < 5years & ≥ 5years also examined. Women with multiple gestation removed. vs. 1435 Canadian-born. H & ND overall (adjusted) Good
Shah RR. (2007) (English) Thesis
Sletten K. (2011) (English) Thesis unpublished Local, hospital records, 2009-2010 Norway (Baerum) 803 Immigrants from Latin America, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, & Western Europe vs. 1634 Norwegian women. Low risk women (35 weeks or greater gestational age, no diabetes, singleton births) only. H & ND overall (unadjusted) H & ND emerg (adjusted) L & ND elect (adjusted) Good
Small R, & Lumley J. (2007) (English) Conference abstract Regional, population-based registry, 1999-2007 Australia (Victoria) 70,417 Women from Non-English-speaking countries (only countries w >1000 births were included): Vietnam, China, Former Yugoslavia, Philippines, Lebanon, India, Sri Lanka, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Turkey, Malaysia, Iraq, Cambodia, Indonesia, Greece, Germany, Poland and Italy vs. 444,175 Australian-born. M overall (+ variation by parity; not statistically tested) Fair
Small R, Gagnon A, Gissler M, et al. (2008) (English) Regional & National, population-based registries, 1997-2004 Australia (New South Wales, Victoria), Belgium (Flanders, Brussels), Canada (Ontario, Quebec), Finland, Norway, Sweden 10,431Somali women vs. 2, 168, 891 receiving-country-born women. H overall [Belgium- Flanders (primips & multips) & Belgium -Brussels]; H (primips) & ND (multips) overall (Australia- Victoria, Finland, Norway, & Sweden); ND overall [Australia -New South Wales (primips & multips) & Canada] (unadjusted) Fair
Stray-Pedersen B, & Austveg B. (1996) (Norwegian) Local, hospital records, 1993 Norway (Oslo) 734 "Immigrants" (including Asia/Africa/South America/East Europe and Turkey) vs. 3188 Norwegians. H overall (all immigrants combined; unadjusted) Fair
Teixeira C, Correia S, & Barros H. (2010) (English) Conference abstract Geographical coverage not indicated, research study, years not indicated Portugal 743 European/North American, African, & South American (based on country of birth) vs. 6692 Portuguese-born. Singleton births only. H & ND overall (adjusted but variables included not indicated) Fair
Triantafyllidis G, Tziouva K, Papastefanou I, Samolis S, Katsetos C, & Panagopoulos P. (2010) (English) Conference abstract Local, hospital records, 2007 Greece (Pireaus) 657 "Immigrants" (based on nationality) (mostly Albanians) vs. 304 Greek women. Only term deliveries (gestational age 37-40 weeks). ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Van Enk A, Doornbos HP, & Nordbeck HJ. (1990) (English) Local, hospital records, 1972-1982 Holland (Amsterdam) 1614 Non-European immigrants defined by ethnic origin: "Blacks" (Surinam & Dutch Antilles), Mediterranean (Turks & Moroccans), Asians [West Indian Asians (Hindustani from Surinam), Chinese & some Indonesians] vs. 6234 Dutch Caucasian. H & ND overall (unadjusted; results consistent when stratified by parity) Fair
Van Enk WJ, Gorissen WH, & Van Enk A. (2000) (English) National, population-based registry, 1990-1993 Holland 5841Migrant teenagers (15-19 years old) defined by ethnic and geographical background: Mediterranean [Turkish & North African (mainly Moroccan)], Black (Surinam & Dutch Antilles), Hindustani (West Indian-Asian from Surinam & Dutch Antilles), Asian (Chinese, Malaysian & Malaccan); non-Dutch European (West & East Europe & American), & "others" (mixed, unknown or other ethnicity) vs. 45,570 Dutch (born in Netherlands and West European origin, includes teenagers and 20-24 yr olds). Singleton, primiparous pregnancies. M overall (when compared to Dutch teens); L & ND overall (when compared to 20-24 yr old Dutch); (unadjusted but restricted to primips and defined age groups) Fair
Vangen S, Stoltenberg C, & Schei B. (1996) (English) Local, hospital records, 1992 Norway (Oslo) 67 Pakistani vs. 70 Norwegian women. ND overall (unadjusted) ND emerg (unadjusted) ND elect (unadjusted) Fair
Vangen S, Stoltenberg C, Skrondal A, Magnus P, & Stray-Pedersen B. (2000) (English) National, population-based registry, 1986-1995 Norway 17,891 Immigrants from Turkey/Morocco, Pakistan, Sri Lanka/India, Vietnam, Philippines, Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia, Chile/Brazil vs. 535,600 Norwegians M overall (adjusted) H & ND emerg (not statistically tested) M elect (not statistically tested) Good
Vangen S, Stoltenberg C, Johansen RE, Sundby J, & Stray-Pedersen B. (2002) (English) National, population-based registry, 1986-1998 Norway 1733 Somali vs. 702,192 Norwegians. H overall (adjusted) H emerg (adjusted) L elect (not statistically tested) Good
Vangen S, Stray-Pedersen B, Skrondal A, Magnus P, & Stoltenberg C. (2003) (English) National, population-based registry,1986-1998 Norway 2408 Filipino mother/Filipino father and mixed= Filipino mother/Norwegian father vs. 615,063 Norwegian women. H overall (adjusted) H emerg (not statistically tested) H & ND elect (adjusted) Good
Vangen S, Stoltenberg C, Holan S, et al. (2003) (English) National, population-based registry, 1988-1998 Norway 10,908 "Immigrants" (some had Norwegian citizenship): included countries in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia), South Asia (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India/Bangladesh) vs. 601,785 Norwegian women. Women with and without diabetes included. ND overall (all immigrants combined; not statistically tested) ND emerg (all immigrants combined; not statistically tested) ND elect (all immigrants combined; not statistically tested) Fair
Versi E, Liu KL, Chia P, & Seddon G. (1995) (English) Local, hospital records, 1987-1991 UK (East London) 6460 Bangladeshi vs. 7592 low-income Caucasian women. ND overall (unadjusted; results consistent when stratified by parity) ND emerg (not statistically tested) H (multips) & ND (primips) emerg (unadjusted) L (primips & multips) elect (unadjusted) Fair
Von Katterfeld B, Li J, McNamara B, & Langridge AT. (2011) (English) Regional, population-based registry, 1998-2006 Australia (West Australia) 59,245 Foreign-born women as per mother's country of birth as declared in the birth register, ten regional categories as per Standard Australia Classification of countries: Oceania, North/West Europe, South/East Europe, North Africa/Middle East, Sub Saharan Africa, South East Asia, North East Asia, South/Central Asia, Americas vs. 149,737Australian-born (non-indigenous). M overall (not statistically tested) H & ND emerg (unadjusted) M elect (unadjusted) Fair
Walsh J, Robson M, & Foley M. (2009) (English) Conference abstract Local, hospital records, 2008 Ireland (Dublin) 931 Eastern Europe, Africa, Britain, India, China vs. 2499 Irish women. Only primiparous women, and delivered singleton, term infants. M caesarean during labour (unclear if statistically significant) Fair
Walsh J, Mahony R, Armstrong F, Ryan G, O’Herlihy C, & Foley M. (2011) (English) Local, hospital records, 2008 Ireland (Dublin) 552 Eastern European vs. 2449 Irish women. Primiparous, singleton, term deliveries for women who laboured. ND caesarean during labourb (adjusted) ND caesarean pre-labour (excluded group from study) Good
Ryan G, Armstrong F, Walsh J & Foley M. (2010) (English) Conference abstract
Walsh J, Mahony R, McAuliffe F, O'Herlihy C, Robson M, & Foley M. (2009) (English) Conference abstract
Yoong W, Wagley A, Fong C, Chukwuma C, & Nauta M. (2004) (English) Local, hospital records, 2002 UK (North London) 61 Kosovo-Albanian vs. 61 British Caucasian. ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Yoong W, Kolhe S, Karoshi M, Ullah M, & Nauta M. (2005) (English) Local, research study, 2002 UK (North London) 69 Somali vs. 69 British Caucasian. ND overall (unadjusted) Fair
Zanconato G, Lacovella C, Parazzini F, Bergamini V, & Franchi M. (2011) (English) Local, hospital records, 2005-2009 Italy (Verona) 2661 “Immigrants" defined as 5 ethnic minority groups based on geographical location: Sub-Saharan Africa, Central & Eastern Europe, Middle East & North Africa, Central and South America, South and East Asia vs. 6365 Italian women; singleton births only. M overall (adjusted for age but not parity) H & ND caesarean during labour (adjusted for age but not parity) M caesarean pre-labour (not statistically tested) Fair
Zlot AI, Jackson DJ, & Korenbrot C. (2005) (English) Local, hospital records, 1994-1998 US (San Diego) 1789 Mexican-born (categorized into acculturation groups by language ability- English, Spanish and bilingual) vs. 313 US born Latina women. Only includes low-risk, low income women. H & ND (primips) & L & ND (multips) overall; (adjusted) Good
Zuppa AA, Orchi C, Calabrese V, et al. (2010) (English) Local, research study, 2005 Italy (Rome) 585 “Immigrants” (includes women from Latin America, East Europe, West Europe, Russia, North America, Asia, Africa) vs. 2334 Italian-born. L overall (all immigrants combined; unadjusted) Fair
  1. * For “overall”, “emerg” and “elect” caesarean rates for different migrant groups (defined by country/region of birth, migration status, ethnicity, length of time in new country &/or language ability) compared to non-migrants: H= Higher rate(s); L= Lower rate(s); ND = No Different rate(s); M= Mixed (Higher & Lower rates or Higher, Lower & No Different rates); ‘adjusted’ if at minimum controlled for parity and age. Presented by parity (primiparous = primips; multiparous= multips) &/or age if ‘unadjusted’ and reported.
  2. † Additional data provided.