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Table 1 Adjusted odds ratios and population attributable fractions for SGA infants, New South Wales, 2007–2010

From: Potential prevention of small for gestational age in Australia: a population-based linkage study

Study variable Preterm infant Term infant, diabetic mother Term infant, non-diabetic mother
Adjusted OR (95% CI) Model-based PAF (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Model-based PAF (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Model-based PAF (95% CI)
Country of birth, Aboriginality       
  Aboriginal Australian 1.08 [0.84, 1.39] 0.36 [-0.92, 1.68] 1.08 [0.75, 1.57] 0.13 [-0.48, 0.80] 1.29 [1.20, 1.38] 0.87 [0.61, 1.12]
  Non-Aboriginal Non-Australian† 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Non-Australian 1.67 [1.46, 1.90] 11.41 [8.36, 14.41] 1.92 [1.72, 2.14] 27.01 [22.74, 31.23] 1.54 [1.50, 1.59] 11.08 [10.29, 11.86]
ARIA+remoteness       
  Major cities 0.88 [0.77, 1.01]   Not retained   Not retained  
  Inner regional† 1.00    
  Outer regional 0.77 [0.60, 0.98]    
  Remote 0.36 [0.17, 0.78]    
Socio-economic group       
  1st quintile (Most advantaged)† (1st–4th quintiles vs. 5th quintile) 1.00   (1st–3rd quintiles vs. 4th, 5th quintile)  
  2nd quintile 1.15 [0.97, 1.35]  
  3rd quintile 1.06 [0.89, 1.26]  
  4th quintile 1.23 [1.02, 1.47]   1.12 [1.08, 1.16]  
  5th quintile (Most disadvantaged) 1.22 [1.07, 1.40]   1.41 [1.21, 1.64]   1.18 [1.15, 1.22]  
Inter-pregnancy interval       
  6–41 months, nulliparity† Not retained   Not retained   1.00  
  <6 or ≥42 months    1.14 [1.08, 1.19]  
Number of previous pregnancies       
  0 1.89 [1.62, 2.19] 26.97 [21.25, 32.52] 2.71 [2.38, 3.09] 39.82 [35.22, 44.14] 2.73 [2.62, 2.84] 36.96 [35.80, 38.13]
  1† 1.00   0.66 [0.53, 0.83]   1.00  
  2 0.57 [0.45, 0.70]   0.56 [0.41, 0.77]   0.71 [0.67, 0.74]  
  3 (0, 2+ vs. 1)   (0,2+ vs. 1)   0.55 [0.51, 0.61]  
  4+ 0.47 [0.41, 0.55]
Number of previous births by caesarean       
  0† Not retained   Not retained   1.00  
  1    0.92 [0.87, 0.97]  
  2    (None vs. Any)  
  3+    
Number of previous preterm births       
  0† Not retained   Not retained   1.00  
  1    1.68 [1.55, 1.82] 1.17 [0.95, 1.38]
  2+    2.00 [1.46, 2.72] 0.11 [0.55, 0.17]
Number of stillbirths       
  0 Not retained   Not retained   1.00  
  1+    1.40 [1.14, 1.72] 0.12 [0.04, 0.20]
Number of previous SGA infants       
  0† 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  1 3.70 [3.02, 4.54] 9.81 [8.00, 11.67] 4.00 [3.28, 4.88] 7.27 [5.91, 8.73] 4.90 [4.67, 5.14] 11.16 [10.73, 11.62]
  2 7.56 [5.03, 11.36] 3.11 [2.22, 4.13] 8.93 [5.52, 14.42] 1.44 [0.89, 2.06] 12.27 [10.93, 13.77] 2.24 [2.06, 2.43]
  3+    16.89 [13.10, 21.78] 0.54 [0.45, 0.65]
Pre-existing/Gestational diabetes 0.60 [0.49, 0.74]   Not retained   Not retained  
Pregnancy hypertension 4.46 [3.94, 5.05] 28.80 [25.97, 31.64] Not retained   1.17 [1.12, 1.22] 1.22 [0.84, 1.89]
Chronic hypertension 3.12 [2.34, 4.16] 2.73 [1.80, 3.78] Not retained   1.31 [1.14, 1.50] 0.20 [0.09, 0.32]
Illicit drug use during pregnancy 1.82 [1.29, 2.57] 1.45 [0.52, 2.43] 3.25 [1.46, 7.22] 0.31 [0.04, 0.64] 2.00 [1.74, 2.29] 0.57 [0.44, 0.70]
Smoking during pregnancy 2.23 [1.91, 2.61] 12.41 [9.79, 14.99] 1.45 [1.21, 1.75] 2.51 [1.14, 3.92] 2.31 [2.22, 2.40] 10.28 [9.77, 10.83]
First antenatal care visit ≥14 weeks Not retained   Not retained   1.05 [1.01, 1.08] 0.79 [0.20, 1.39]
Fetus with congenital anomaly 2.26 [1.86, 2.74]   Not retained   1.46 [1.35, 1.59]  
  1. SGA, small-for-gestational-age, OR, odds ratio, CI, confidence interval, PAF, population attributable fraction, ARIA+, accessibility/remoteness index of Australia.
  2. †Reference category. For dichotomised variables, the reference category is absence of variable.