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Table 3 Associations 1 between vitamin D intake from supplements in mid-pregnancy and child asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort

From: Vitamin D intake in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease – a prospective study in 44,825 Danish mother-child pairs

Quintile of intake   Cases/N Asthma (18 months)N = 33,425/29,1612/28,4213 P for trend4 Cases/N Current asthma (7 years - ISAAC)N = 28,686/25,0242/24,3823 P for trend4 Cases/N Ever admitted asthmaN = 28,766/25,0942/24,4523 P for trend4 Cases/N Ever prescribed asthmaN = 28,757/25,0932/24,4523 P for trend4
    RR (95% CI)    RR (95% CI)    RR (95% CI)    RR (95% CI)  
Continuous Crude 5,635/33,425 (17%) 1.01 (1.00, 1.01) 0.04 1,122/28,686 (4%) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) 0.40 1,654/28,766 (6%) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.52 8,905/28,757 (31%) 1.01 (1.01, 1.01) <0.0001
Adjusted2   1.00 (1.00, 1.01) 0.14   1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.99   1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.52   1.01 (1.00, 1.01) 0.01
Adjusted3   1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.85   0.98 (0.97, 1.00) 0.10   0.99 (0.97, 1.00) 0.07   1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 0.65
1 Crude 835/5,071 (16%) 1.00 (ref.) 0.06 158/4,362 (4%) 1.00 (ref.) 0.18 251/4,375 (6%) 1.00 (ref.) 0.51 1,216/4,374 (28%) 1.00 (ref.) <0.0001
Adjusted2    0.38    0.84    0.36    0.005
Adjusted3    0.55    0.14    0.02    0.79
2 Crude 1,675/10,142 (17%) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08)   348/8,849 (4%) 1.09 (0.90, 1.31)   498/8,873 (6%) 0.98 (0.84, 1.13)   2,736/8,872 (31%) 1.11 (1.05, 1.17)  
Adjusted2   1.01 (0.94, 1.10)    1.07 (0.88, 1.30)    0.98 (0.84, 1.14)    1.12 (1.05, 1.19)  
Adjusted3   1.03 (0.91, 1.17)    1.05 (0.78, 1.41)    1.00 (0.78, 1.27)    1.11 (1.01, 1.22)  
3 Crude 266/1,761 (15%) 0.92 (0.81, 1.04)   49/1,589 (3%) 0.85 (0.62, 1.17)   80/1,590 (5%) 0.88 (0.69, 1.12)   440/1,589 (28%) 1.00 (0.91, 1.09)  
Adjusted2   0.95 (0.83, 1.08)    0.78 (0.55, 1.10)    0.84 (0.64, 1.09)    1.02 (0.92, 1.12)  
Adjusted3   0.91 (0.78, 1.05)    0.62 (0.42, 0.90)    0.71 (0.53, 0.95)    0.96 (0.86, 1.07)  
4 Crude 2,443/14,064 (17%) 1.05 (0.98, 1.13)   481/11,828 (4%) 1.12 (0.94, 1.34)   705/11,866 (6%) 1.04 (0.90, 1.19)   3,842/11,860 (32%) 1.16 (1.10, 1.23)  
Adjusted2   1.02 (0.95, 1.11)    1.06 (0.88, 1.27)    0.97 (0.83, 1.12)    1.12 (1.05, 1.18)  
Adjusted3   0.99 (0.87, 1.11)    0.97 (0.73, 1.29)    0.84 (0.67, 1.07)    1.05 (0.96, 1.15)  
5 Crude 417/2,387 (17%) 1.06 (0.95, 1.18)   86/2,058 (4%) 1.15 (0.89, 1.49)   120/2,062 (6%) 1.01 (0.82, 1.25)   671/2,062 (33%) 1.17 (1.08, 1.27)  
Adjusted2   1.05 (0.94, 1.17)    1.01 (0.77, 1.34)    0.88 (0.70, 1.11)    1.11 (1.02, 1.21)  
  Adjusted3   0.99 (0.86, 1.14)    0.81 (0.57, 1.15)    0.77 (0.58, 1.03)    1.03 (0.93, 1.15)  
  1. 1Analyzed using log-binomial models.
  2. 2Adjusted for maternal age, socio-economic status, parity, prepregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, partner’s smoking during pregnancy, solarium use during pregnancy, breastfeeding duration, child sex, maternal history of asthma, maternal history of allergies, paternal history of asthma, and paternal history of allergies, season of last menstrual period, and energy (in quintiles).
  3. 3Adjusted as in 2 plus fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and intake of total EPA + DPA + DHA, vitamins A, C, and E, folate, calcium, selenium, and zinc (all in quintiles).
  4. 4Median values for each quintile entered as a continuous variable into the model. For continuous exposure the P-value reflects the P-value of the effect estimate.
  5. ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood.
  6. EPA: Eicosapentaenoic acid.
  7. DPA: Docosapentaenoic acid.
  8. DHA: Docosahexaenoic acid.