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Table 2 Key maternal and neonatal indicators by Indigenous status

From: The maternal and neonatal outcomes for an urban Indigenous population compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts and a trend analysis over four triennia

Indicator Definition Indigenous Non-Indigenous Difference
N n % N n % % 95% CI
Gestation at birtha < 32 weeks 1,499 51 3.4 42,810 892 2.1 1.3 0.4 2.2*
< 37 weeks 1,499 191 12.7 42,810 3,787 8.9 3.9 2.2 5.6*
Onset of laboura Spontaneous 1,499 1,027 68.5 42,805 27,154 63.5 5.1 2.7 7.5*
Induced 298 19.9 9,931 23.2 −3.3 −5.4 −1.3*
No labour - CS 174 11.6 5,720 13.4 −1.8 −3.4 −0.1*
Analgesiaa Inhalational 1,380 649 47.0 39,365 18,263 46.4 0.6 −2.0 3.3
Opioid 1,380 368 26.7 39,365 9,031 22.9 3.7 1.4 6.1*
Epidural 1,380 287 20.8 39,365 10,754 27.3 −6.5 −8.7 −4.3*
Five min Apgar scoreb < 7 1,520 36 2.4 43,612 917 2.1 0.3 −0.5 1.0
Method of birthb Non-instrumental vaginal 1,516 1,039 68.5 43,460 27,079 62.3 6.2 3.8 8.6*
Forceps 16 1.1 989 2.3 −1.2 −1.8 −0.7*
Vacuum 69 4.6 3,102 7.1 −2.6 −3.7 −1.5*
Caesarean section 392 25.9 12,290 28.3 −2.4 −4.7 −0.2*
VBACa Vaginal birth, parity 1, previous CS; singleton cephalic term 52 8 15.4 2,150 457 21.3 −5.9 −15.8 4.1
Perineal traumac Intact or 1st degree tear 1,320 1,146 86.8 37,005 28,072 75.9 11.0 9.1 12.8*
2nd degree tear 153 11.6 6,072 16.4 −7.2 −8.8 −5.6*
3rd or 4th degree tear 52 3.9 2,861 7.7 −3.8 −4.9 −2.7*
Episiotomy 1,319 73 5.5 36,995 3,705 10.0 −4.5 −5.8 −3.2*
SGAb < 10th centile 1,476 207 14.0 41,934 4,115 9.8 4.2 2.4 6.0*
Low birth weightb < 2500 g 1,523 201 13.2 43,691 3,586 8.2 5.0 3.3 6.7*
Perinatal outcomeb Stillbirth 1,523 12 0.8 43,693 298 0.7 0.1 −0.3 0.6
Neonatal death 13 0.9 224 0.5 0.3 −0.1 0.8
(Perinatal deaths) 25 1.6 522 1.2 0.4 −0.2 0.1
Survived 1,498 98.4 43,171 98.8    
Admission to NCCUb   1,523 280 18.4 43,693 6,004 13.7 4.6 2.7 6.6*
Length of stay Maternal < 3 daysa 1,492 985 66.0 42,655 24,892 58.4 7.7 5.2 10.1*
Neonate in NCCU > 7 daysb 1,523 41 2.7 43,693 683 1.6 1.1 0.3 2.0*
Feeding at dischargeb Breast milk 1,385 959 69.2 40,881 31,192 76.3 −7.1 −9.5 −4.6*
Breast & formula 92 6.6 3,688 9.0 −2.4 −3.7 −1.0*
Formula 315 22.7 5,730 14.0 8.7 6.5 11.0*
Gavage 19 1.4 218 0.5 0.8 0.2 1.5
Other 0 0.0 53 0.1 −0.1 −0.2 −0.001*
  1. *Statistically significant. CS caesarean section; VBAC vaginal birth after caesarean; NCCU Neonatal Critical Care Unit; SGA small for gestational age.
  2. a Data 1998–2009. Total Indigenous pregnancies n = 1,499, total non-Indigenous pregnancies n = 42,810.
  3. b Data 1998–2009. Total Indigenous births n = 1,523, total non-Indigenous births n = 43,693.
  4. c Data excluding CS with no labour. Total Indigenous pregnancies n = 1,325, total non-Indigenous births n = 37,085.